Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 20.100–108
Prabhupāda: [aside:] [Hindi] Give him seat. So read. You have no other book? ¶
So, last Sunday we were discussing about Sanātana Gosvāmī’s meeting with Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Sanātana Gosvāmī was the finance minister of Nawab Hussain Shah, the then Pathan government of Bengal. So he resigned his office. The Nawab was reluctant to give him release. He was arrested, but somehow or other he released himself by bribing the superintendent of jail, and he met Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Benares, or Vārāṇasī. And for two months He gave him instruction how to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness. ¶
So approaching the guru, Sanātana Gosvāmī, his submission was that “People in general, they talk of me as very learned scholar.” He was very good scholar in Sanskrit, in Arabic and Persian language, because he was minister, very responsible post. So… And he was born in brāhmaṇa family, Sārasvata brāhmaṇa family. So naturally he was supposed to be very learned scholar, paṇḍita, brāhmaṇa-paṇḍita. Still we address a brāhmaṇa as paṇḍitjī. Never we address a brāhmaṇa as mūrkhajī. So that is the etiquette. Brāhmaṇa means he must be very learned scholar and a very advanced devotee. Brāhmaṇa-paṇḍita, brāhmaṇa Vaiṣṇava. These are the qualification of brāhmaṇa. So naturally he was addressed as paṇḍitjī, but he denied to accept that he is actually paṇḍita. ¶
So he submitted that, ¶
grāmya-vyavahāre kahaye paṇḍita satya kari māni
āpanāra hitāhita kichui nā jāni
That “People, they address me as paṇḍita, but I am such a paṇḍita that I do not know what I am.” This is the position of everyone. Everyone is very much proud of his learning, scientific knowledge and so on, so on. But if you ask him, “What you are?” “I am Indian,” “I am brāhmaṇa,” “I am kṣatriya,” “I am American.” This is the answer you’ll get. But that is, I am not. I am not this body. This is the beginning of paṇḍita. This is the beginning. Bhagavad-gītā teaches in the beginning this primary lesson, that “You are not this body.” ¶
dehino ‘smin yathā dehe
kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
dhīras tatra na muhyati
So this is the problem, dehātma-buddhi, identifying oneself with this body. That is condemned in the śāstra. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ, sa eva go-kharaḥ [SB 10.84.13]: “Anyone who is identifying himself with this body, he is no better than the cows and the asses, animal.” This is… The whole Vedic civilization is based on this principle, that one has to learn first of all that he is not this body. Then further advancement. If one keeps himself under this misidentification that “I am this body,” he remains an animal. ¶
So Sanātana Gosvāmī submitted to his guru. This is the actually necessity of approaching a guru, not that guru should be approached for some material gains, for some medical help: “Guru Mahārāja, I am suffering from this disease. Give me your blessing,” and he gives some powder and you are cured. So for this purpose there is no necessity of guru. You can go to a medical man, then he can help you. Why should you search out a guru? But that has become a fashion. For some material gain they would go to guru. And if the guru can manufacture gold, then what to speak of? This is going on. But śāstra does not say that you should approach a guru for some material benefit. No. Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam [SB 11.3.21]. You should approach a guru—what purpose? Jijñāsuḥ, if you are inquisitive, jijñāsuḥ. What is that jijñāsuḥ? Athāto brahma jijñāsā. This is the Vedānta. Jijñāsā, enquiry, means not for any other purpose, any political, social or this…, so many things are there in this material world. But real jijñāsā is brahma-jijñāsā. That is, the Vedānta-sūtra begins. ¶
So the same thing is confirmed in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, because Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural comment on Vedānta-sūtra. When Vyāsadeva was not satisfied even after giving the Vedānta-sūtras, Brahma-sūtras, then his spiritual master advised him that “You write something simply on the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; otherwise you cannot be satisfied.” Then he, on the basis of Vedānta-sūtra, he wrote a commentary, bhāṣyaṁ brahma-sūtrānām. Therefore in each end of chapter of Bhāgavatam you’ll find, brahma-sūtrasya bhāṣyayam. So the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural comment on Vedānta-sūtra by the author himself. So the Vedānta-sūtra says, athāto brahma jijñāsā. Unless one is inquisitive to understand about Brahman or the supreme spirit or the basic principle of our life… ¶
indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur
indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ
manasas tu parā buddhir
buddhes tu ya para saḥ
Brahman means… Generally we are identified with this body. Body means the senses. We take prominent the senses. Whole world is going on on the sense perception, sense gratification. So indriyāṇi parāny āhuḥ. The indriyas are very prominent in materialistic way of life. Indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ. Then, above the indriyas, there is the mind. Just like philosopher, psychologist or scientist, who are thoughtful, thinking, they are also on the mental platform. The ordinary men, they are on the bodily platform like animal, sense gratification. And little higher than that—indriyāṇi parāṇy āhuḥ indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ—those who are on the mental platform. But mental platform will not help us. It is said, mano-rathena asato dhāvato bahiḥ. Mano-rathena. If one is on the mental platform, naturally he has no higher information. He’ll glide down again to the material platform. Harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇā manorathena asato dhāvato bahiḥ ¶. So simply mental speculation, the whole world, the scientists… They are working on the mental platform. Therefore today they fix up, “This is the conclusion,” and tomorrow, another conclusion, another conclusion, because it is mental platform. So above the mental platform, intellectual platform; and above the intellectual platform is the spiritual platform, and that is called Brahman platform. So athāto brahma jijñāsā. One should be inquisitive on the spiritual platform. That is success of life.
Therefore Sanātana Gosvāmī is submitting that “Actually they address me as paṇḍita, but I am not paṇḍita, because I am on the mental platform and the sensual platform, not even intellectual platform.” And above that intellectual platform is the spiritual platform. So the śāstra says that one should be inquisitive on the spiritual platform. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam [SB 11.3.21]. Uttamam means spiritual. Tama means material, and jyoti means spiritual. So Vedic instruction is tamasi mā jyotir gamaḥ: “Don’t remain in the dark, material platform. You just approach a spiritual platform.” These are the Vedic civilization. One should be inquisitive about… Tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. Ut means udgatam, transcendental. There is no tama, there is no darkness. So uttamam, that is uttamam. This word uttama, uttama means not of this material world: beyond this material world. That is called uttama. ¶
So if one is inquisitive about the spiritual world, jīvasya tattva jijñāsā, that is tattva. ¶
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
bhagavān iti śabdyate
Everything is there, and we are trying to present them in our so many books. Unfortunately, we are not interested. That is another thing. Anyway, so a guru is necessary for him, not for some āśīrvāda, for curing some material disease or getting some gold. No. He has no necessity for guru. Guru is necessary for that person who is inquisitive about understanding Brahman. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. ¶
So the Sanātana Gosvāmī came to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, accepted Him as guru, not for any material benefit. Because he was minister… Tyaktvā tūrṇam aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇīṁ sadā tucchavat. He gave up his position, very high position. What is that? Aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇīm. Because he was minister, his associates, his friends, his, I mean to say, business was with big, big men of the state, maṇḍala-pati, big zamindars, big kings, big ministers, big so on. Everyone is big. But he preferred to give them up, tyaktvā tūrṇam aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇīṁ sadā tucchavat, that “What is the use of this association?” Sadā tucchavat. Bhūtvā dīna-gaṇeśakau karuṇayā kaupīna-kanthāśritau. And he preferred to do something beneficial to the public, bhūtvā dīna-gaṇeśakau, in the public, general public. Nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau. This was the business, not that he was very busy while he was minister, and when he retired he became a dull and sat down in one place. No. Nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau. He was studying different types of literatures and scriptures. Why? Sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau: just to establish real purpose of religiosity. Sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau. These are the qualifications of six Gosvāmīs. ¶
So these Gosvāmīs, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, they were the principal disciples of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, six Gosvāmī. Śrī rūpa sanātana bhaṭṭa raghunātha, śrī jīva gopāla bhaṭṭa dāsa raghunātha. All of them were very, very big, stalwart scholars, ministers, rich men, zamindars. They all joined Caitanya Mahāprabhu just to help Him to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness. It is not a sentimental movement. It is meant for the learned scholars and highly situated person. Bhagavad-gītā is also that. Kṛṣṇa says, imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ ¶. The Bhagavad-gītā was not meant for any third-class man. Rājarṣi. Rājarṣi, great kings, at the same time saintly. Not kings of the present day. Saintly kings, rājarṣi. So these Vedic literatures, they are meant for the high-class men, brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, but Caitanya Mahāprabhu is so kind, so merciful, that He has made a process that anyone can take it. That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s mercy. Therefore His name is Patita-pāvana. In this age everyone is fallen, everyone is fallen, and Caitanya Mahāprabhu is called “the deliverer of the fallen,” patita-pāvana.
patita-pāvana-hetu tava avatāra
mo sama patita prabhu nā pāibe āra
This is the approach. One should approach Caitanya Mahāprabhu very humbly. Caitanya Mahāprabhu also instructed, to advance in spiritual consciousness one should be very humble, meek. That is the instruction of all scripture. One should not be falsely puffed up. Caitanya Mahāprabhu has taught us, ¶
tṛṇād api sunīcena
taror api sahiṣṇunā
kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ
One should be tolerant. ¶
So anyway, this Sanātana Gosvāmī, he is approaching Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very humbly and tolerantly, putting himself that he is fool number one. Yes. Grāmya-vyavahāre kahaye paṇḍita: “These general people, they do not know what is a paṇḍita, but they call me paṇḍitjī. But actually I know what kind of paṇḍita I am: I do not know what I am.” Grāmya-vyavahāre paṇḍita satya kari māni. So his first proposal is, ke āmi kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya: “What is my position? What I am? I do not want to suffer, but in this material world, three kinds of suffering are always there, and they are giving me trouble.” This consciousness is not there. People have become so dull-headed that they are always suffering by three kinds of suffering: adhyātmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika; still, they are thinking they are very happy. This is called māyā. ¶
This morning we were discussing āvaraṇātmikā-śakti. Māyā has got a covering power so that everyone, even he’s a cat and dog, he’s thinking that he is very happy. This is māyā. Nobody can be happy in this material world. That is the fact. Why? Kṛṣṇa says. The creator of this world, He says, duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam ¶: “It is the place for suffering.” How you can be happy? It is meant for suffering. But people are thinking they are happy or, if they make this plan executed, then they will be happy. You see. Nobody is happy. Big, big politician, they plan so many things. Unfortunately they never become happy, and we have got many examples—we do not wish to discuss—but it is a fact that this place is duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam. The great authority, Kṛṣṇa, says. And here is a realized soul, Sanātana Gosvāmī. He said that “Why I am subjected to so many miserable condition?” This is a fact. Duḥkhālayam. This alayam, this place, is for suffering, duḥkhālayam, and aśāśvatam, and you cannot stay here for long time. Even if you think that it is very happy place, you’ll not be allowed. Duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam .
So actually it is not the place for enjoyment, but under the spell of māyā we are thinking that this is a place for happiness. And what is that happiness? Yan-maithunādi-gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tuccham ¶. The happiness is based on sex life, maithunādi. That’s all. This is the material happiness. Therefore everyone within the universe, you’ll find the plan of happiness on the sex life. I try to enjoy on sex life. Then, on account of sex life, there are children. So I try to make them happy—the same sex life. The grandchildren—the same sex life. Because we do not know anything else. Yan-maithunādi-gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tucchaṁ kaṇḍūyanena karayor iva duḥkha-duḥkham. So that is not happiness. Happiness is different thing. Sukham ātyantikaṁ yat tad atīndriya grāhyam . If you want happiness, that is spiritual happiness, not material happiness.
So when he submitted that “Why I am suffering from these threefold miseries, adhyātmika, adhibhautika?” so that is real approaching of the spiritual master, that “Why I am suffering?” not that “Give me some mantra and medicine. I become happy. ” No. The question should be… Just like if a person is serious to consult a physician, not that “Immediately give me some tablet, I become happy.” No. The root disease must be treated. That is the relationship between the patient and… So Sanātana Gosvāmī is intelligent person, most intelligent person. He was minister. Without being very intelligent, one cannot be minister. So he said that “Why I am suffering? What is my position? What I am?” Then Caitanya Mahāprabhu says directly, ¶
jīvera svarūpa haya kṛṣṇera nitya-dāsa,
kṛṣṇera taṭasthā-śakti bhedābheda prakāśa
sūryāṁśa-kiraṇa yaiche agni-jvālā-caya
svābhāvika kṛṣṇera tina-prakāra śakti haya
Now Caitanya Mahāprabhu is beginning the identification of the living entity from the end of Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa is demanding at the last instruction, “The most confidential part of knowledge I am giving you, My dear Arjuna, because you are My dear friend.” So what is that? Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja ¶. This is the most confidential part. It is not understood by general public, but this is the only knowledge, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja. Kṛṣṇa came, appeared on this planet, for dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya . He did not come to establish the conception of Hindu religion and Muslim religion or Christian religion or this religion. No. Real religion. Real religion. What is that real religion? To surrender unto the Supreme Lord. That is real religion. So just like our real citizens means…, citizenship means that we surrender to the government regulation, similarly, dharma means dharmāṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam . You cannot manufacture dharma as you cannot manufacture law at home. That is not. Now they are manufacturing, and it is being supported, yata mat tata pat. Whatever… [break] …manufacture, it is all right. It cannot be all right.
Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam ¶. Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is the Supreme. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram . Everything is being conducted under His instruction. The sun is rising exactly at time. Yasyājñaya bhramati sambhṛta-kāla-cakro. These are description in the Vedic literature.
yac-cakṣur eṣa savitā sakala-grahānāṁ
rājā samasta-sura-mūrtir aśeṣa-tejāḥ
yasyājñaya bhramati sambhṛta kāla-cakro
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
The sun, the most powerful planet within this universe, the eyes of the universe… Yac-cakṣur eṣa savitā sakala-grahānām. Without sunrise, however expert you may be in science, you cannot see even. Therefore real eye—the sun. Any sane man will admit. Now it is darkness at night. Have any scientists any instrument to show that everything is visible? No. That is not possible. The real eyes. This is subsequent, secondary eyes. We are very much proud of our eyes, that “Can you show me God?” Are you able to see God? What is the value of your eyes? As soon as there is darkness, your eyes are finished. And you are so much proud, oh. Therefore Vedic injunction—śāstra-cakṣuṣa: “You must be seeing everything through the śāstra, not with your these rascal eyes.” It has no value. Śāstra-cakṣuṣa. Tasmād śāstra-vidhān uktam, Kṛṣṇa said. Yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya. The direction is the śāstra. You should see through the śāstra what is what. Then you’ll be benefited. If you simply believe on your senses… The whole world, philosophers, scientists, they are going on on their own imperfect senses. Therefore everything is rascaldom. It is imperfect. It is not real knowledge. Śāstra-cakṣuṣa. You should know things through the śāstra, guru. Sādhu-śāstra-guru-vākya, tinete kariyā aikya. This is… If you want to know something, then it must be confirmed by sādhu, śāstra and guru. Then it is complete. And if you speculate, if you establish something under speculation, then it is not right; it is wrong. ¶
Therefore Kṛṣṇa, when He appeared on this planet, He, last instruction was that sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ ¶: “You just surrender to Me, and after giving up all your mental speculation, so-called religious system…” This is real religious system. So He left behind Him the Bhagavad-gītā to open our eyes, but we did not take much care of it. Therefore five hundred years ago Lord Caitanya appeared. He is Kṛṣṇa. He practically taught how to accept instruction of Kṛṣṇa.
āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra’ ei deśa
yāre dekha, tāre kaha ‘kṛṣṇa’-upadeśa
He also appeared as devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He can command, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja ¶, but here Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared as a devotee, ideal devotee of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Caitanya.
nāmne gaura-tviṣe namaḥ
The Rūpa Gosvāmī offered his first prayer to Caitanya Mahāprabhu that “You are the mahā-vadānyāvatāra, most munificent incarnation.” Why? Kṛṣṇa-prema-pradāya te: “Even Kṛṣṇa could not convince people about His supremacy, but You are so kind that You are giving love of Kṛṣṇa.” Love of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa-prema-pradāya te. That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s gift. ¶
So the same Caitanya Mahāprabhu is instructing Sanātana Gosvāmī what is the position, actual constitutional position of us. He says directly same thing: jīvera svarūpa haya kṛṣṇera nitya-dāsa ¶. That is the real identification, that every living entity, jīva—we are jīvas—we are eternally servant of Kṛṣṇa. This is our position. But artificially we are trying to become Kṛṣṇa. A servant is trying to become master. They are misinterpreting the Vedic instruction, so ‘ham, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. Yes. So ‘ham, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, these are Vedic instruction. It is all right. So so ‘ham does not mean that you are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. You are the same quality as Supreme, nitya kṛṣṇa dāsa. Just like a servant of a very big man, the king, he is not ordinary thing. Suppose a king… He is in the same palace, he is sitting by the side of the king, he is eating the same foodstuff, but still there is relationship, the servant and the master, although he is living in the same place, same eating, same everything. Sometimes he is honored most, he is honored better than the master. So so ‘ham means that “I am the same spiritual self,” but not as powerful as the supreme master. Kṛṣṇa dāsa. He is… A living entity must always know that “I am servant of God.” And without becoming God, nobody can become servant of God. Without becoming fire, you cannot serve fire. That is the principle. But not that… Just like great fire and a small fire. The small spark fire is within the great fire. You cannot remain in the great fire, but the spark, even if it is very small, he can remain. So the fiery quality of the big fire and the small fire is the same, but there is distinction of dimension or energy.
Therefore here it is said, jīvera svarūpa haya ¶. We must… This is our constitutional position. Artificially we should not think that “Now I have become God.” That is false. That is the last snare of māyā, because māyā… In this material world everyone is trying to become the chief man. Everyone. Everyone is trying to become minister. Everyone is trying to become a Birla. Everyone is trying to become a big doctor or a big financier—everyone. This is the struggle for existence here. Everyone. At last, when failed in everything, then he thinks of him, “I am God.” This is the disease, material disease. But Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in the very beginning He impresses that “You are not the master; you are the servant. If you don’t serve Kṛṣṇa, then you’ll serve māyā. That is your position.” That is the position of everyone here in this material world. They are serving the māyā.
guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ
kartāham iti manyate
He is foolishly thinking that he is master. But he is always… Twenty-four hours, he is being kicked by the laws of nature. But the foolish man cannot understand. Therefore they have been called mūḍha. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ ¶. They… He does not come to the sense that “Where I am master? I am servant of the dictation of māyā, the rules and regulation of material nature. Where is my mastership?” This intelligence does not come. He is thinking still he is master, he can control the nature, he can control everything, he is God, he is this, he is that. That is the misconception.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in the very beginning of His instruction He is saying to Sanātana Gosvāmī that “You inquired from Me what is your position,” ke āmi, “ ‘What I am?’ You are servant of Kṛṣṇa.” This is the first impression. ¶
jīvera svarūpa haya kṛṣṇera nitya-dāsa
kṛṣṇera taṭasthā-śakti bhedābheda-prakāśa
This is the great, I mean, philosophy. Acintya-bhedābheda. Just like… I have already explained now. So ‘ham, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. This is bhedābheda-prakāśa. I am the same quality of Kṛṣṇa, I am the same Brahman also, but I am not the Para-brahman. Para-brahman is Kṛṣṇa. When Arjuna… He is Brahman. When he realized Kṛṣṇa, he addressed Him, paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān ¶. He never claimed equal with Kṛṣṇa. That is not knowledge. That is ignorance. So in this way, Sanātana Gosvāmī will understand his position, relationship with Kṛṣṇa, and Sanātana Gosvāmī we shall understand. And Caitanya Mahāprabhu is describing in this Caitanya-caritāmṛta; therefore we shall discuss later on further.
Thank you very much. ¶
Devotees: Jaya. All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda. [end] ¶