Cow protection

SB 8.6.12


yathāgnim edhasy amṛtaṁ ca goṣu
bhuvy annam ambūdyamane ca vṛttim
yogair manuṣyā adhiyanti hi tvāṁ
guṇeṣu buddhyā kavayo vadanti


yathāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyathā

according to; accordingly as; and as; anywhere; as (He likes); as; as advised by his father; as also; as far as possible; as far as; as follows; as has; as He desires; as if; as if it were; as is; as it; as it is; as it is now; as it should have been; as it was; as it was done; as it were; as many; as much; as much as (deserved); as much as; as requested; as they are; as they told it; as they were; as well as; as you; by which; development of austerity and penance; duly; even as; exactly as; exactly like; fittingly; for the forefathers and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; how; in any manner; in order that; in the matter of; in what way; in which manner; in which way; in whichever manner; inasmuch as; just as; just as if; just like; like; like Him; or just as; properly; since; so; so that; so you inform me; the manner in which; where; wherever; without deviation.
—as; agnimplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigagnim

fire; into the fire; the fire; the flames; unto the sacred fire; upon the fire.
—fire; edhasiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigedhasi

fuel; in wood.
—in wood; amṛtamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigamṛtam

Amṛta; deathlessness; eternal life; eternity of life; generation of the nectar; giving pleasure; happiness; immortality; indestructible; milk, which is like nectar; nectar; nectar for eternal life; nectar or milk; nectarean; never to be vanquished; the ambrosia; the embodiment of bliss; the nectar; the path of eternal life; the profession of amṛta; the results of sacrifice; understanding; very sweet; without deterioration.
—milk, which is like nectar; caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

ca; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word ca; this word ca; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—and; goṣuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biggoṣu

from cows; unto the cows.
—from cows; bhuviplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhuvi

everywhere; in the material world; in the world; in this earth; in this world; on earth; on the earth; on the earth, the home of human beings; on the ground; on the planet earth; on the surface of the earth; on the surface of the globe; on the surface of the world; on this earth; on this planet; over the universe; touching the ground; upon this earth; within the earth; within this world.
—on the ground; annamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigannam

prasāda; eatable; eatables; food; food grains; foodstuff (prasāda); foodstuff; fruitive action; grains; the food; the sacrificial oblations.
—food grains; ambuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigambu

like drops of water; water; with the water.
—water; udyamaneplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigudyamane

in enterprise.
—in enterprise; caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

ca; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word ca; this word ca; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—also; vṛttimplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvṛttim

better existence; business of livelihood; good engagement; livelihood; means of livelihood; occupation; professions; source of livelihood; the means of livelihood; the necessities of the body; the profession.
—livelihood; yogaiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyogaiḥ

by devotional service; by mystic yogīs (as the Paramātmā situated everywhere); by mystic yogīs; by practice of bhakti-yoga; by the rectifying processes; by various processes; mystic powers.
—by practice of bhakti-yoga; manuṣyāḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmanusyah

a human being; human being; the person.
—human beings; adhiyantiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigadhiyanti

—achieve; hiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bighi

addressed; all; also; and above all; and exactly; as a matter of fact; assuredly; because; because of which; certainly; certainly are; exactly; exactly like; for; for this reason; from which; in deed; in fact; indeed (You can be realized by the devotees); indeed; is certainly; only; positively; reason of; since; surely; than; though; thus; undoubtedly; without fail.
—indeed; tvāmplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtvam

establishment of the statement tat tvam asi.
—You; guṇeṣuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigguṇeṣu

(the mind, not being liberated, becomes attached) to the material qualities; in sense gratification; in the material manifestation, consisting of the three modes of nature; in the material modes of nature; in the material world, manifested by the modes of nature; in the modes; in the modes of different qualities; in the modes of material nature; in the modes of nature; in the qualities; in the three modes of nature; of the material world, which is moving because of the three modes of nature; the modes of material nature; the objects of sense gratification under the modes of material nature; to the modes; while the modes.
—in the material modes of nature; buddhyāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbuddhyā

and intelligence; by intelligence; by proper intelligence; by so-called intelligence or experimental knowledge; by the intelligence; intelligence; through reason; with intelligence; with the intelligence.
—by intelligence; kavayaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigkavayaḥ

all transcendentalists; and Kavi; expert thinkers; great learned sages; great learned scholars; great personalities; great philosophers; great, great sages and saintly persons; learned devotees; learned men; learned persons; learned scholars; philosophers or learned scholars; the advancement of learned scholars or philosophers in spiritual life; the devotees; the great learned persons who have perfect intelligence; the greatly learned sages; the intelligent; the learned; the learned scholars; those well versed in rituals; those who are expert.
—great personalities; vadantiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvadanti

all learned men say; are lodging this complaint; do say; do they say; explain; say; the great learned sages say; the learned Vedic scholars conclude; they call; they say; they say authoritatively; they speak; they suggest (in regard to one's means of livelihood).


As one can derive fire from wood, milk from the milk bag of the cow, food grains and water from the land, and prosperity in one’s livelihood from industrial enterprises, so, by the practice of bhakti-yoga, even within this material world, one can achieve Your favor or intelligently approach You. Those who are pious all affirm this.


Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead is nirguṇa, not to be found within this material world, the entire material world is pervaded by Him, as stated in Bhagavad-gītā (mayā tatam idaṁ sarvam). The material world is nothing but an expansion of the Lord’s material energy, and the entire cosmic manifestation rests upon Him (mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni [Bg. 9.4]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 9.4

By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them.
). Nonetheless, the Supreme Lord cannot be found here (na cāhaṁ teṣv avasthitaḥ). A devotee, however, can see the Supreme Personality of Godhead through the practice of bhakti-yoga. One ordinarily does not begin to practice bhakti-yoga unless he has practiced it in previous births. Moreover, one can begin bhakti-yoga only by the mercy of the spiritual master and Kṛṣṇa. Guru-kṛṣṇa-prasāde pāya bhakti-latā-bīja [Cc. Madhya 19.151]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigŚrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 19.151

"According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. By the mercy of both Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.
. The seed of devotional service is obtainable by the mercy of guru, the spiritual master, and Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Only by the practice of bhakti-yoga can one achieve the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and see Him face to face (premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti [Bs. 5.38]). One cannot see the Lord by other methods, such as karma, jñāna or yoga. Under the direction of the spiritual master, one must cultivate bhakti-yoga (śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam [SB 7.5.23]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigŚrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.5.23-24

Prahlāda Mahārāja said: Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Viṣṇu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one's best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words)—these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Kṛṣṇa through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge.
). Then, even within this material world, although the Lord is not visible, a devotee can see Him. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā (bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Bg. 18.55]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 18.55

One can understand the Supreme Personality as He is only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of the Supreme Lord by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God.
) and in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ). Thus by devotional service one can achieve the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although He is not visible or understandable to materialistic persons.

In this verse, the cultivation of bhakti-yoga is compared to many material activities. By friction one can get fire from wood, by digging the earth one can get food grains and water, and by agitating the milk bag of the cow one can get nectarean milk. Milk is compared to nectar, which one can drink to become immortal. Of course, simply drinking milk will not make one immortal, but it can increase the duration of one’s life. In modern civilization, men do not think milk to be important, and therefore they do not live very long. Although in this age men can live up to one hundred years, their duration of life is reduced because they do not drink large quantities of milk. This is a sign of Kali-yuga. In Kali-yuga, instead of drinking milk, people prefer to slaughter an animal and eat its flesh. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, in His instructions of Bhagavad-gītā, advises go-rakṣya, which means cow protection. The cow should be protected, milk should be drawn from the cows, and this milk should be prepared in various ways. One should take ample milk, and thus one can prolong one’s life, develop his brain, execute devotional service, and ultimately attain the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As it is essential to get food grains and water by digging the earth, it is also essential to give protection to the cows and take nectarean milk from their milk bags.

The people of this age are inclined toward industrial enterprises for comfortable living, but they refuse to endeavor to execute devotional service, by which they can achieve the ultimate goal of life by returning home, back to Godhead. Unfortunately, as it is said, na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ durāśayā ye bahir-artha-māninaḥ [SB 7.5.31]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigŚrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.5.31

Persons who are strongly entrapped by the consciousness of enjoying material life, and who have therefore accepted as their leader or guru a similar blind man attached to external sense objects, cannot understand that the goal of life is to return home, back to Godhead, and engage in the service of Lord Viṣṇu. As blind men guided by another blind man miss the right path and fall into a ditch, materially attached men led by another materially attached man are bound by the ropes of fruitive labor, which are made of very strong cords, and they continue again and again in materialistic life, suffering the threefold miseries.
. People without spiritual education do not know that the ultimate goal of life is to go back home, back to Godhead. Forgetting this aim of life, they are working very hard in disappointment and frustration (moghāśā mogha-karmāṇo mogha jñānā vicetasaḥ [Bg. 9.12]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 9.12

Those who are thus bewildered are attracted by demonic and atheistic views. In that deluded condition, their hopes for liberation, their fruitive activities, and their culture of knowledge are all defeated.
). The so-called vaiśyas—the industrialists or businessmen—are involved in big, big industrial enterprises, but they are not interested in food grains and milk. However, as indicated here, by digging for water, even in the desert, we can produce food grains; when we produce food grains and vegetables, we can give protection to the cows; while giving protection to the cows, we can draw from them abundant quantities of milk; and by getting enough milk and combining it with food grains and vegetables, we can prepare hundreds of nectarean foods. We can happily eat this food and thus avoid industrial enterprises and joblessness.

Agriculture and cow protection are the way to become sinless and thus be attracted to devotional service. Those who are sinful cannot be attracted by devotional service. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (Bg. 7.28)plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 7.28

Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.

yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ
janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām
te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā
bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ

“Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.” The majority of people in this age of Kali are sinful, short-living, unfortunate and disturbed (mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigŚrīmad Bhāgavatam 1.1.10

O learned one, in this iron age of Kali men have but short lives. They are quarrelsome, lazy, misguided, unlucky and, above all, always disturbed.
). For them, Caitanya Mahāprabhu has advised:

harer nāma harer nāma
harer nāmaiva kevalam
kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva
nāsty eva gatir anyathā
[Cc. Ādi 17.21]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigŚrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā 17.21

" 'In this Age of Kali there is no other means, no other means, no other means for self-realization than chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name of Lord Hari.'

“In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is chanting the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way.”

SB 8.8.11


ābhiṣecanikā bhūmir
āharat sakalauṣadhīḥ
gāvaḥ pañca pavitrāṇi
vasanto madhu-mādhavau


ābhiṣecanikāḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigābhiṣecanikāḥ

paraphernalia required for installing the Deity.
—paraphernalia required for installing the Deity; bhūmiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhumih

earth; land; mother earth; surface of the earth; the earth; the land.
—the land; āharatplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigaharat

blew away; conquered; cut off; diminished; eradicated; he took upon himself; removed; severed; simply captivated; stole; took away.
—collected; sakalaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsakala

all; all kinds of; all varieties; everyone; everything; in all; over all; total; whole.
—all kinds of; auṣadhīḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigausadhih

all vegetables; and drugs; drugs and herbs.
—drugs and herbs; gāvaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biggāvaḥ

all the cows; bulls; cow; cows; the calves; the cow; the cows; the protected cows.
—the cows; pañcaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigpanca

all five; all five qualities; five; five different varieties of products from the cow, namely milk, yogurt, clarified butter, cow dung and cow urine; five pots; five sons; the fifth; the five; the five objects of the senses (sound, form, touch, aroma and taste).
—five different varieties of products from the cow, namely milk, yogurt, clarified butter, cow dung and cow urine; pavitrāṇiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigpavitrāṇi

—uncontaminated; vasantaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvasantaḥ

are residing; personified springtime.
—personified springtime; madhuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmadhu

and by the Madhus; by honey; by the honey; drinking liquor or honey; fragrant, laden with honey; honey; Madhu; nectar; of honey; sweet; sweet to hear; sweethearts; sweetness; the honey.
-mādhavauplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmādhavau

flowers and fruits produced during spring, or in the months of Caitra and Vaiśākha.
—flowers and fruits produced during spring, or in the months of Caitra and Vaiśākha.


The land became a person and collected all the drugs and herbs needed for installing the Deity. The cows delivered five products, namely milk, yogurt, ghee, urine and cow dung, and spring personified collected everything produced in spring, during the months of Caitra and Vaiśākha [April and May].


Pañca-gavya, the five products received from the cow, namely milk, yogurt, ghee, cow dung and cow urine, are required in all ritualistic ceremonies performed according to the Vedic directions. Cow urine and cow dung are uncontaminated, and since even the urine and dung of a cow are important, we can just imagine how important this animal is for human civilization. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, directly advocates go-rakṣya, the protection of cows. Civilized men who follow the system of varṇāśrama, especially those of the vaiśya class, who engage in agriculture and trade, must give protection to the cows. Unfortunately, because people in Kali-yuga are mandāḥ, all bad, and sumanda-matayaḥ, misled by false conceptions of life, they are killing cows in the thousands. Therefore they are unfortunate in spiritual consciousness, and nature disturbs them in so many ways, especially through incurable diseases like cancer and through frequent wars and among nations. As long as human society continues to allow cows to be regularly killed in slaughterhouses, there cannot be any question of peace and prosperity.

SB 9.15.25


sa vai ratnaṁ tu tad dṛṣṭvā
tan nādriyatāgnihotryāṁ
sābhilāṣaḥ sahaihayaḥ


saḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsaḥ

mahat-tattva; a person (Kaṁsa); a son; Aghāsura; all; anyone; Bharata Mahārāja; Brahmā; child Parīkṣit; Dakṣa; Dhruva; Dhruva Mahārāja; Dhṛtarāṣṭra; Durvāsā Muni; he (Agastya); he (Aghāsura); he (Ajāmila); he (Ambarīṣa Mahārāja); he (Aṅgirā Ṛṣi); He (Baladeva); he (Bali Mahārāja); he (Brahmā); he (Brahmājī); he (Budha); he (Citraketu); he (Dakṣa); he (Devāpi); he (Dhruva Mahārāja); he (Dhruva); he (Droṇa); he (Durvāsā); he (Emperor Manu); he (Gajendra); he (Garuḍa); he (Hiraṇyakaśipu); he (Hiraṇyakaśipu, the King of the Daityas); he (Indra); he (Jamadagni); he (Janamejaya); he (Jaḍa Bharata); he (Kardama); he (Kaṁsa); he (King Citraketu); he (King Hūhū); he (King Indra); he (King Kaṁsa); he (King Nīpa); he (King Pṛthu); he (King Rantideva); he (King Āgnīdhra); he (Kārtavīryārjuna); He (Kṛṣṇa); He (Lakṣmaṇa, the brother of Lord Rāmacandra); he (Lord Brahmā); He (Lord Kṛṣṇa); He (Lord Rāmacandra); He (Lord Viṣṇu); he (Lord Śiva); he (Mahārāja Ambarīṣa); he (Mahārāja Bharata); he (Mahārāja Priyavrata); he (Mahārāja Rahūgaṇa); he (Maitreya Muni); he (Manu); he (my father); he (Nahuṣa); he (Nābhāga); he (one who is not self-controlled); he (Prahlāda Mahārāja); he (Purūravā); he (Rantideva); he (Sarvatejā); He (Satyasena); he (Soma, the moon-god); he (Svāyambhuva Manu); he (that hunter); he (that uncivilized Kaṁsa); he (the muni); he (the conditioned soul); he (the devotee); he (the great man); he (the individual soul); he (the King); he (the leader of the elephants); He (the Lord); He (the Personality of Godhead); he (the serpent); he (the sun-god); He (the Supreme Lord); He (the Supreme Person); He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); he (Vasudeva); he (Vasudeva, also known as Ānakadundubhi); he (Venus); he (Vidura); he (Viśvarūpa); He (Vāmanadeva); he (Vāsudeva); he (Vīrabhadra); he (Vṛtra); he (Vṛtrāsura); he (Śukadeva Gosvāmī); he (Śukrācārya); he (Śūra); he (Ṛcīka); he (Ṛṣyaśṛṅga); he; He alone; he is; he, Durvāsā Muni; he, Hariścandra; he, Jamadagni; he, King Purūravā; he, Kārtavīryārjuna; he, Lord Paraśurāma; He, Lord Rāmacandra; he, Mahārāja Ambarīṣa; he, Mahārāja Sagara; he, Prahlāda Mahārāja; he, Purañjaya; he, Purūravā; he, Rohita; he, Rāvaṇa; he, Saubhari Muni; he, Saubhari Ṛṣi; he, so celebrated; he, Soma; he, the brāhmaṇa; he, the King; He, the Lord; he, Varuṇa; he, Vasiṣṭha; he, Vidura; He, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; Hiraṇyakaśipu; Hiraṇyākṣa; His Lordship; His Lordship the Supreme Personality of Godhead; his son Utkala; I am the same powerful person; is he; it; Jambhāsura; Kardama Muni; Kaśyapa; Kaśyapa Muni; King Dakṣa; King Indra; King Malayadhvaja; King Purañjana; King Pṛthu; King Vena; King Yayāti; Kṛṣṇa; Kṛṣṇa Himself; Lord Brahmā; Lord Kṛṣṇa; Lord Śiva; Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; Mahārāja Bharata; Mahārāja Ikṣvāku; Mahārāja Yayāti; Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; myself; one such as your good self; one who does so; Prahlāda Mahārāja; Prajāpati Dakṣa; Revata; so myself; someone; such; such a devotee; such a person; such a person as I am; such a personality; Sudyumna; Svāyambhuva Manu; that (great demon Maya Dānava); that (having the above symptoms); that (Supreme Personality of Godhead); that (Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa); that brāhmaṇa; that yoga system; that; that Ajāmila; that arrow; that banyan tree; that boy of the name Vena; whether that person; which; You; Your Lordship; yourself.
—he (Kārtavīryārjuna); vaiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvai

actually; also; always; as a matter of course; as a matter of fact; as either; as I remember; as they are; but; by providence; certainly; duly; easily; either; even; even though; exactly; from whom everything is coming; generally; however; in fact; in particular; in that way; indeed; is certainly; of course; or; positively; undoubtedly; what else is there to say; without fail.
—indeed; ratnamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigratnam

a great source of wealth; a valuable gem; jewel.
—a great source of wealth; tuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtu

again; also; and; as to; as well as; but (because of misfortune); but; certainly; due to; expletive; however; in fact; indeed; moreover; must; of course; on the contrary; only; that; then; yet.
—indeed; tatplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtat

establishment of the statement tat tvam asi.
—the kāmadhenu in the possession of Jamadagni; dṛṣṭvāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdṛṣṭvā

after practically seeing; after seeing; after seeing this; be seeing; by experiencing; by observing; by seeing; by seeing it; by seeing the condition of His mother; estimating; having observed; having seen; looking on; observing; on seeing; seeing; seeing this incident; seeing this situation; thus seeing; upon seeing (him); upon seeing; was observing; when he saw; when the cows saw their calves below.
—by observing; ātmaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigatma

and of the soul; and of the Supersoul (Paramātmā); and the mind; body; by a manifestation of Yourself; by the body and mind; by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; by themselves; by Yourself; heart; Himself; his; in Himself; in the body; in the living entities; into the self; living being; mind; of all living entities; of Himself; of one's self; of spiritual knowledge; of the mind; of the mind and senses; of the soul; of the Supreme; one's own; own; personal; self; self-realized; soul; spirit; Supersoul; the body and mind; the devotees are the Lord's heart and soul; the mind; the mind and body; the self; the spirit; the Supersoul; the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the Supreme Self; the tree of work; to the body; upon the Supersoul; within; Yourself; ātmā.
-aiśvaryaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigaiśvarya

and opulence; by opulence; divine power; material opulence; miracle; mystic opulences; mystic power; of opulence; of opulences; opulence; opulences; the opulence; wealth and power.
—his own personal opulence; atiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigati

completely; exceedingly; extremely; great; greater; greatly; highly; superseding; too; too much; very; very great; very much; very serious.
-śāyanamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsayanam

lying down.
—which was exceeding; tatplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtat

establishment of the statement tat tvam asi.
—that; naplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigna

never; not; are not; but not; cannot; certainly not; could not; did not; do not; does it not; does not; is not; it is not; it is not so; may not; neither; never; never does; never to be; no; no one; none; nor; not; not like that; not preceded by oṁ; not suitable; nothing; or not; shall not; should never; there is none; there is not; there should not be; was not; whether; without.
—not; ādriyataplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigādriyata

appreciated very much.
—appreciated very much; agnihotryāmplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigagnihotryām

in that cow, which was useful for executing the agnihotra sacrifice.
—in that cow, which was useful for executing the agnihotra sacrifice; saplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsa

accompanied by; along with; he; her; that; with.
-abhilāṣaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigabhilāṣaḥ

became desirous.
—became desirous; saplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsa

accompanied by; along with; he; her; that; with.
-haihayaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bighaihayaḥ

Haihaya; Kārtavīryārjuna.
—with his own men, the Haihayas.


Kārtavīryārjuna thought that Jamadagni was more powerful and wealthy than himself because of possessing a jewel in the form of the kāmadhenu. Therefore he and his own men, the Haihayas, were not very much appreciative of Jamadagni’s reception. On the contrary, they wanted to possess that kāmadhenu, which was useful for the execution of the agnihotra sacrifice.


Jamadagni was more powerful than Kārtavīryārjuna because of performing the agnihotra-yajña with clarified butter received from the kāmadhenu. Not everyone can be expected to possess such a cow. Nonetheless, an ordinary man may possess an ordinary cow, give protection to this animal, take sufficient milk from it, and engage the milk to produce butter and clarified ghee, especially for performing the agnihotra-yajña. This is possible for everyone. Thus we find that in Bhagavad-gītā Lord Kṛṣṇa advises go-rakṣya, the protection of cows. This is essential because if cows are cared for properly they will surely supply sufficient milk. We have practical experience in America that in our various ISKCON farms we are giving proper protection to the cows and receiving more than enough milk. In other farms the cows do not deliver as much milk as in our farms; because our cows know very well that we are not going to kill them, they are happy, and they give ample milk. Therefore this instruction given by Lord Kṛṣṇa—go-rakṣya—is extremely meaningful. The whole world must learn from Kṛṣṇa how to live happily without scarcity simply by producing food grains (annād bhavanti bhūtāni [Bg. 3.14]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 3.14

All living bodies subsist on food grains, which are produced from rain. Rains are produced by performance of yajña [sacrifice], and yajña is born of prescribed duties.
) and giving protection to the cows (go-rakṣya). Kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāvajam [Bg. 18.44]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 18.44

Farming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for the vaiśyas, and for the śūdras there is labor and service to others.
. Those who belong to the third level of human society, namely the mercantile people, must keep land for producing food grains and giving protection to cows. This is the injunction of Bhagavad-gītā. In the matter of protecting the cows, the meat-eaters will protest, but in answer to them we may say that since Kṛṣṇa gives stress to cow protection, those who are inclined to eat meat may eat the flesh of unimportant animals like hogs, dogs, goats and sheep, but they should not touch the life of the cows, for this is destructive to the spiritual advancement of human society.

SB 10.5.20


vasudeva upaśrutya
bhrātaraṁ nandam āgatam
jñātvā datta-karaṁ rājñe
yayau tad-avamocanam


vasudevaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvasudevah

Vasudeva (the father of Kṛṣṇa); Vasudeva; Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa; who appeared as Vasudeva; Śrī Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa; Śrīla Vasudeva; Śrīla Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa.
—Vasudeva; upaśrutyaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigupaśrutya

after hearing; by hearing; having overheard; hearing; upon hearing; when he heard.
—when he heard; bhrātaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhrātaram

brother; her brother; His brother Bharata; that his dear friend and brother; the brother; the brother of that Rākṣasa.
—that his dear friend and brother; nandamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bignandam

Mahārāja Nanda; Nanda Mahārāja; unto Nanda (the father of Kṛṣṇa).
—Nanda Mahārāja; āgatamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigagatam

already arrived; appeared; appeared before Him; approached him; arrived at; coming back; coming forward; had arrived; had come to Mathurā; had returned; has come; having arrived; having arrived there; returned.
—had come to Mathurā; jñātvāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigjnatva

(the sage) could understand; after understanding; and deciding what to do; and knowing; by knowing; by knowing it; could understand; having known; having understood; knowing; knowing it well; knowing perfectly well; knowing well; thus knowing; understanding; when he learned.
—when he learned; dattaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdatta

given; given by; handed over by; the surname Datta; Vāsudeva Datta.
-karamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigkaram

hand; his hand; producing; taxes; the cause of; the share of profit.
—and had already paid the taxes; rājñeplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigrājñe

to the King; unto the King (Hiraṇyakaśipu); unto the King (Lord Rāmacandra); unto the King.
—unto the King; yayauplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyayau

departed; entered; He left; He went; he went away; left; left that place; obtained; returned; returned home; returned to His own abode; she left; started out; took; went; went away; went back; went out; went to; went to the fruit vendor.
—he went; tatplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtat

establishment of the statement tat tvam asi.
-avamocanamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigavamocanam

to the residential quarters of Nanda Mahārāja.
—to the residential quarters of Nanda Mahārāja.


When Vasudeva heard that Nanda Mahārāja, his very dear friend and brother, had come to Mathurā and already paid the taxes to Kaṁsa, he went to Nanda Mahārāja’s residence.


Vasudeva and Nanda Mahārāja were so intimately connected that they lived like brothers. Furthermore, it is learned from the notes of Śrīpāda Madhvācārya that Vasudeva and Nanda Mahārāja were stepbrothers. Vasudeva’s father, Śūrasena, married a vaiśya girl, and from her Nanda Mahārāja was born. Later, Nanda Mahārāja himself married a vaiśya girl, Yaśodā. Therefore his family is celebrated as a vaiśya family, and Kṛṣṇa, identifying Himself as their son, took charge of vaiśya activities (kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyam [Bg. 18.44]plugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigBhagavad-gītā As It Is 18.44

Farming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for the vaiśyas, and for the śūdras there is labor and service to others.
). Balarāma represents plowing the land for agriculture and therefore always carries in His hand a plow, whereas Kṛṣṇa tends cows and therefore carries a flute in His hand. Thus the two brothers represent kṛṣi-rakṣya and go-rakṣya.