SB 7.6.1 — April 9, 1969, New York

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 7.6.1

Prabhupāda: [chants maṅgalācaraṇa prayers] 

Boys and girls, today I shall explain to you the importance of Kṛṣṇa consciousness as it was conceived by one of the greatest devotees in this disciplic succession. You know we are under disciplic succession. We do not manufacture anything by mental concoction. We do not approve that method. We receive knowledge from the authorities and out of such many ācāryas, or authorities, who have appeared and disappeared… We don’t say born and died, no. [laughter] Appear and disappear. This is the actual explanation. None of us, either Kṛṣṇa or we or all living entities, they appear and disappear. It is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, Lord Kṛṣṇa says in the battlefield, “My dear Arjuna, either you or Me or all the kings and soldiers who have assembled in this battlefield, don’t think that they did not exist in the past and they’ll not exist in the future.” That means they existed in the past and they’re existing at present and they would exist also in the future. That means eternal. Eternal, we are all eternal. 

But this misunderstanding is… Just like we are… Because the passing phase is this body, and the body is changing, and the final change, when you transmigrate from one body to another, it is called death. Actually, there is no death. Na jāyate na mriyate kadācit. In the Bhagavad-gītā you’ll find that the living entity never is born, neither never dies. Na hanyamāne hanyate, hanyamāne śarīre. Then “I see that he is dying.” Oh, that is dying not, that is his finishing his this present body. The example is given, vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya [Bg. 2.22]. Just like one person changes his dress, similarly, when this dress, the present body, is unworkable… Just like one man cannot see. What do you mean by “cannot see”? When the power of vision is no longer working or the spectacle is broken, therefore he cannot see. Similarly, when the all the senses will be broken or cannot work… Just like eye cannot, the eyes cannot work, therefore it is blind, similarly, the hand cannot work, the leg cannot work, the tongue cannot work because at the last stage when this mechanical arrangement of this body will stop to function, that is called death. That you try to understand, that as because I cannot see, it does not mean I am dead. Similarly, because the senses of the body cannot function, that also does not mean that I am dead. It is to be understood with little intelligence and with cool head. 

So Prahlāda Mahārāja, a great devotee, he’s in the line of disciplic succession. He’s considered one of the great ācāryas. An authority, ācārya. And who is ācārya? Ācārya means one who knows the intricacies of Vedic knowledge and he personally behaves in terms of that knowledge and teaches his disciple in terms of that knowledge. Ācārya means the person whose behavior is to be followed. Not that as we follow somebody according to our taste. Not like that. That ācārya comes in the standard disciplic succession. So ācārya. So this Prahlāda Mahārāja, we are discussing the instruction of Prahlāda Mahārāja because he happens to be one of the stalwart ācāryas. And the names of such ācāryas, authorized ācāryas, are also mentioned in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. 

So who are they? Svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ [SB 6.3.20]. Svayambhuḥ means Brahma. Brahmā is supposed to be born without any material father and mother. Therefore he is called Svayambhuḥ. He is the only living creature within this universe who is born without the father and mother. How it is? Without the father and mother means this material father and mother. But he has his father. His father is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. And he’s born out of the lotus flower which is grown from the abdomen of Nārāyaṇa. Therefore he’s called Svayambhuḥ. Svayambhuḥ means self-manifested. Because before him, there was no existence of material creation. Therefore he is called Svayambhuḥ. And next is Nārada. Svayambhūr nāradaḥ. Nārada is born out of Brahmā. Svayambhūr nāradaḥ and śambhuḥ. Śambhuḥ is also born of Brahmā. Śambhuḥ means Lord Śiva. So he is also one of the ācāryas. Svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kumāraḥ kapilo manuḥ [SB 6.3.20]. Kumāraḥ means… 

These Kumāras, they are also sons of Brahmā, but they are called Kumāras, brahmacārīs. When they were born… Because Brahmā wanted at that time to create living entities to fulfill the whole universe, so he wanted so many sons and grandsons. So he requested his four Kumāra sons, “My dear boys, you get yourself married and increase generation.” But the Kumāras, they said, “My dear father, we are not going to marry. We are not going to be entangled in this material way of life. We shall remain as brahmacārīs and cultivate Kṛṣṇa consciousness.” Oh, the father was very angry. Oh, you are refusing my order? So when he became angry… Angry means that is Rudra. So from that anger Lord Śiva was born. Therefore he is called Rudra. And he was Rudra, his name was Rudra because he was crying from the very beginning of his birth. So anyway, Rudra is also one of the authorities, Rudra, or Lord Śiva. 

Svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kumāraḥ kapilaḥ [SB 6.3.20]. Kapila is the son of Devahūti, and he’s also considered as the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kapilaḥ kumāraḥ manuḥ [SB 6.3.20]. And manuḥ, manuḥ means the father of the mankind. From manuḥ, the word man is derived. Or, in Sanskrit word, manuṣya. So in Latin and Sanskrit, man, manuṣya, and manuḥ, they are almost on the same level. So svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kapilo kumāraḥ manuḥ [SB 6.3.20], then prahlādo janako bhīṣmaḥ. So now this Prahlāda’s name comes. Prahlāda’s name comes. Prahlāda and Janaka, the great king, Janaka, whose daughter was married to Lord Rāmacandra. Jānakī. Therefore, Sītā’s name is Jānakī, daughter of Mahārāja Janaka. So he is also a great authority. Prahlādo janako bhīṣmaḥ, and Bhīṣma, you have heard the name of Bhīṣma, the grandfather of Arjuna. He is also one of the authorities. And, prahlādo janako bhīṣmo balir, Mahārāja Bali, a king. He was a grandson of this Prahlāda Mahārāja. He became mahājana. All these persons, they became authorities by their exemplary character for advancing in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore they are considered as authorities. So, balir vaiyāsakir vayam. Vaiyāsakiḥ means the son of Vyāsadeva, Śukadeva Gosvāmī. He’s also authority. And vayam, it is, this statement is made by Yamarāja, the controller of sinful activities. Superintendent of police, appointed by Kṛṣṇa. So he is also one of the authorities. How you can deny the superintendent of police as authority? As he is also authority in the state, similarly he is also authority. 

So one of the authorities, Prahlāda Mahārāja, we are speaking today about his instruction. And what is the history of Prahlāda Mahārāja? Prahlāda Mahārāja born in the family of a great atheist. His father was a great atheist, Hiraṇyakaśipu. Hiraṇya means gold, and kaśipu means enjoyment in soft bedding. So he was concerned with two things, money and next, sense enjoyment. So that was his business, and he wanted to train his boy in that way. But fortunately, this boy happened to be a great devotee by instruction of Nārada. So this boy, although born in the family of atheist—his father is great atheist—but because he was bestowed benediction by a great devotee, Nārada, he became a great devotee. Now he took the opportunity of spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness where? In his school. In his school. He was five years old boy, and as soon as he would get opportunity he would spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness to his classfellows. That was his business. And so many times the father of Prahlāda Mahārāja called the teachers, “So, what education you are giving to my child? Why he is chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa? [laughter] Why you are spoiling my boy?” [laughter] You see? So don’t think that I am spoiling these boys and girls by teaching them Hare Kṛṣṇa. So that teacher said, “My dear sir, I teach your son very nicely about politics, economics, and as you want, to become very clever man in the material world. But unfortunately I do not know wherefrom your son has learned this Hare Kṛṣṇa. So please excuse me. I am trying to make your son forget this nonsense Hare Kṛṣṇa, but I do not know. By nature, he chants Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, and not only he’s spoiling himself, he’s spoiling my whole school. [laughter] Because as soon as he chants Hare Kṛṣṇa, all the boys join with him and they clap and they dance. So this is going on.” So he’s teaching his classfellows now. Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha [SB 7.6.1]

Now, this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam which is in this table, this book is a great, grand edition of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Each verse contains eight commentaries by great stalwart devotees. They represent different disciplic succession of devotee. They are… There are four authorized disciplic successions. As I have already mentioned that Brahmā is one of the authorities, similarly, he has got the disciplic succession from Brahmā. From Brahmā to Nārada, from Nārada to Vyāsadeva, from Vyāsadeva to Madhvācārya, from Madhvācārya to Mad… I am making shortcut. From Madhvācārya to Mādhavendra Purī, from Mādhavendra Purī to Īśvara Purī, from Īśvara Purī to Lord Caitanya, from Lord Caitanya to Svarūpa Dāmodara, from Svarūpa Dāmodara to Six Gosvāmīs, Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, from Gosvāmīs to Kṛṣṇadasa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, and from him Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, and from Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Viśvanātha Cakravartī, from Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura to Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī, from Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī to Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, from Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura to Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, and from Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī my spiritual master, and then we are descended. 

Devotees: Jaya! Haribol! 

Prabhupāda: In this way, the disciplic succession is coming. And what is the specific condition or what is the significance of the disciplic succession? The disciplic succession, if you receive knowledge from the descendants of these authorities, or disciplic succession, then you get the perfect knowledge. Perfect knowledge. Perfect knowledge is imparted by the supreme perfect, God. And it is received by Brahmā, and the same knowledge is handed over to Nārada. Nārada hands over to Vyāsadeva, Vyāsadeva hands over to… Just like a ripe fruit on the top of the tree, if it falls down all of a sudden, it is destroyed. But if it is handed over from up to down, down, down, then it comes as it is. As it is. Then you can enjoy the reality. And that is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā. 

In the fourth chapter, those who have read Bhagavad-gītā, you’ll find, that Kṛṣṇa says, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam [Bg. 4.1]. “First of all, I spoke this yoga system to Vivasvān.” Vivasvān is the name of the controlling deity in the sun planet. There is also a president. As we have got many presidents, in the other higher planetary systems there is one president, and some of them is called the moon-god or the sun-god or the Varuṇa according to Vedic languages. They have got… Such post can be occupied by you also if you become qualified. Just like you can become the President. Similarly, you can also occupy the predominating post in the sun planet, in the moon planet, and all the other planets. That is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā, devān deva-yājo yānti, that anyone who aspires after to be elevated to such planetary system which is inhabited by the demigods, they can go. 

So anyway, that is a different story. So Kṛṣṇa says that “First of all, I narrated this yoga system to Vivasvān.” Vivasvān means the predominating deity whose name is Vivasvān, Vivasvān. He was instructed Bhagavad-gītā. And He says, vivasvān manave prāha. “And Vivasvān, this gentleman, he spoke the truth about Bhagavad-gītā to Manu.” We have already mentioned the name of Manu. Manu means the father of the mankind. Vivasvān manave prāha, that means the, from sun planet the message of Bhagavad-gītā was handed down to the chief man of this planet, the father of the mankind, Manu. Just like in your scripture also it is said Adam and Eve, similarly Manu. So vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākave ‘bravit. And Manu handed over this knowledge to his son whose name is Ikṣvāku. This Ikṣvāku, he’s also a great king. He happens to be the original king in the family in which Lord Rāmacandra appeared. So it is called sūrya-vaṁśa, the descendant from the sun. There are two classes of kṣatriyas. The one is coming from the sun planet, another is coming down from the moon planet. So the history, Mahābhārata, says that the Indo-European stock, they also belong to this kṣatriya family. That is, that’s a long history. Now this, this paramparā system This Vivasvān handed over the knowledge to Manu, Manu handed over this knowledge to his son, Ikṣvāku. 

And Kṛṣṇa says in the next verse, evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ [Bg. 4.2]. In this way, this knowledge was received by disciplic succession and all the rājarṣis… Rājarṣi means the monarch who is just like a sage. You’ll get… In the history of Mahābhārata there were many kings. They were all sages. Simply they were, by name, they’re monarch. But they were always thinking for the welfare of the citizens. Just like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. So this is the Now Kṛṣṇa says, sa kāleneha yogaḥ naṣṭaḥ parantapa. Sa kāleneha yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa. Now this paramparā system, or disciplic succession, has broken by the influence of time. Just imagine it was coming down from the sun planet, and It is, there is every possibility. Suppose I, if I hand over some knowledge unto you and you hand over to some other, in succession, there is possibility that the exact knowledge which I delivered at the beginning, there may be some deviation. That is called breakage of the paramparā system. So Kṛṣṇa says “That paramparā system is, by the force of time, it is now broken; therefore I again begin that paramparā system with you, Arjuna.” Therefore if we understand Bhagavad-gītā as it was understood by Arjuna, then we get the real knowledge. That is the way of understanding paramparā. Although we are not present before Kṛṣṇa, but if the message of Kṛṣṇa is received through the paramparā system as it was understood by Arjuna, then we get directly the message from Kṛṣṇa. This is the system. But if I interpret in my own way, then the paramparā system is broken. 

So our, this paramparā system from Lord Caitanya, as we have given account just now, we do not manufacture any knowledge by our fertile brain. We accept knowledge as it is coming down from the supreme authority. That is the process of… That is perfect knowledge. That is perfect knowledge. Just like we receive knowledge from our parents, “This is called lamp, this is called table, this is called book.” If you protest against it, “Why shall I call it book? I may call it something else.” You can do that, but that is deviation from the knowledge. So paramparā system is considered to be perfect system of knowledge. Perfect… I may be imperfect or my disciple may be imperfect, but if you stick to the knowledge coming down from the paramparā system, then I am perfect. It is so simple, nice thing. Just like a child. His parent teaches him, “This is called watch, timekeeper, timepiece.” If he accepts it, he hasn’t got to make a research, that, “Why it is called timepiece?” [laughter] It is very easy system. “My father has told me this is timepiece. I accept it as timepiece,” and everyone will understand that this is a timepiece. But if I manufacture some name out of my fertile brain, “This is this,” oh, people will call me crazy, “What you are saying?” So the paramparā system is very nice and… 

Just like, man is mortal. Man is mortal, I have learned it from my parents or my teachers that man is mortal. Now, if you want to make research worker, work, whether man is mortal or not, it will take long, long time. But you accept it from the authorities, man is mortal, your knowledge is perfect. So this paramparā system of knowledge is given in the Vedic system of knowledge, and this system of knowledge is followed by the great ācāryas, and the Prahlāda Mahārāja is one of the great ācāryas. So you try to accept what Prahlāda Mahārāja is advising to his classfellows. 

So what he’s advising? Kaumāra ācaret prājño. Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha [SB 7.6.1]. He’s advising, “My dear friends, Kṛṣṇa consciousness should be practiced from the childhood.” From the childhood. So, why childhood? Because if one is intelligent, he says prājñaḥ… Prājñaḥ means intelligent. If one is intelligent, he can understand that “There is no certainty whether this is my childhood or old age.” Because generally we think that when we are old we die. But who can say that I’m not old enough to die in the next moment? If I have to gain something supernatural which will give me the ultimate benefit of my life, then why shall I wait for old age? Immediately let us begin. If Kṛṣṇa consciousness is very nice thing and if it will give us the highest benediction of my life, then if I am intelligent, then I must begin it immediately. Without any delay. Because generally people think that childhood or youthhood should be enjoyed. 

The Śaṅkarācārya he was passing on the road and he’s singing. He was lamenting, what is that? Balas tavad krida sakta. Oh, all these boys are playing. Generally, when you pass a road you see the boys are playing, very much busy, and they’re very jolly in playing. Bālas tāvad krīḍāsaktas taruṇas tāvad taruṇī raktaḥ. And young boys, they’re after young girls. You see? Taruṇas tāvad taruṇī-rakto vṛddhas tāvad anta-magnaḥ. And the old man they are very much morose, what is to be done next. Parame brahmaṇi ko ‘pi na lagnaḥ. Oh, everyone is busy. Nobody’s interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, spiritual life. Everyone is busy. How they are spoiling their life! That is the version of Śaṅkarācārya. He’s lamenting, that the boys, the youths, the old man, they are very happy in their materialistic way of life, but a spiritualistic man like Śaṅkarācārya or Lord Jesus Christ, they are unhappy, “Oh, what foolish things they are doing.” That is the thankless task of persons who are spiritually enlightened. They can see it plain that how they are spoiling their valuable life. Simply for sense gratification. 

So Prahlāda Mahārāja is practically instructed the same thing, that kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān [SB 7.6.1]. Dharmān bhāgavatān iha Bhāgavatān dharmaḥ. Dharma means your occupational duty. The “religion,” word “religion,” translation of the Sanskrit word, dharma, is not perfect. Is not perfect. Religion is a kind of faith. That we can change. But dharma, dharma means your occupational duty. You cannot change. You have to execute it. What is our dharma? What is our compulsory duty? I have several times analyzed this fact. Our compulsory duty is to serve. Compulsory duty. Every one of us is serving and all the boys and girls present here can know it. And nobody can deny that he or she is not serving. Everyone is serving. That is our compulsory duty. I may change my faith I am Christian or I am Hindu. I may change myself to become a Mohammedan or Christian or Hindu, but my real occupational duty is to render service to others. That cannot be changed. That is the real enunciation of religion. And therefore in the Vedic system it is called sanātana-dharma. 

Sanātana-dharma means that eternal occupational duty which you cannot cease. Now, Prahlāda Mahārāja is advising that, dharmān bhāgavatān. Bhāgavatān means… Bhāgavata means pertaining to Bhagavān. And Bhagavān means to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So bhāgavata is the adjective form of the noun word Bhagavān. Bhaga, real form of the word is bhagavat. Bhagavat. Vat means possessing, and bhaga means opulences. One who possess all the opulences, He’s called bhagavat. And from bhagavat this word has come, bhāgavata. So bhāgavata means pertaining to God and His devotees. That is called bhāgavata. Just like this book is called Bhāgavata because it deals only with the subject matter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nothing more. Bas. Therefore it is called Bhāgavata. And you’ll find description in this book, the dealings between Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His devotees. So there are two kinds of bhāgavatam. The devotee bhāgavatam and the book Bhāgavatam. And Prahlāda Mahārāja advises that from the very child-hood if one is very intelligent then his duty is kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha [SB 7.6.1]. One should engage himself in the execution of the duties, occupational duties, in relationship with devotees and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thank you very much. If there is any question? Any question? Hmm? 

Devotee: How old was Prahlāda Mahārāja when [indistinct]. How old was Prahlāda Mahārāja? 

Prabhupāda: Oh, Prahlāda Mahārāja was five years old only. 

Devotee: Then how [indistinct] hear from Vyāsadeva? 

Prabhupāda: He learned this bhāgavata-dharma from the womb of his mother. His mother was instructed… His mother, when she was pregnant, she was arrested by the enemies of her husband, and Nārada Ṛṣi saved her and he took the girl, pregnant girl, at his āśrama and kept her. And as it is the practice of saintly persons to instruct about God, so he was instructing and Prahlāda Mahārāja was hearing from the womb of mother. Yes? 

Devotee: [indistinct] Manu was on this planet. Now he’s not? 

Prabhupāda: Yes, Manu… Manu’s son, Ikṣvāku, was in this planet, but Manu may be in another planet. Just like Manu’s father, the sun, sun-god, Vivasvān, he is in the other planet. Similarly, the population of every planet has increased from one planet to another, like that. So manu’s son, Ikṣvāku, he happened to be in this planet. 

Devotee: You said Prahlāda Mahārāja, he heard Nārada Muni speaking in the womb. [indistinct] hear you speaking? 

Prabhupāda: Certainly. 

Devotees: [loud exclamations and laughter] 

Prabhupāda: Why not Haimāvatī’s child? Even a lizard is here in this room, he is also hearing. This is transcendental sound. Just like there was a sound, everyone’s attention was diverted there. So sound is so penetrating. Sound is the origin of creation. So this is transcendental sound. It penetrates everyone’s heart. Because everyone is spiritual being. That is the specific significance of sound vibration. It is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, ahaituky apratihatā. This spiritual cultivation cannot be checked by any material impediment. Because the child is packed within the womb, within the belly, under the shackles [circles?] of intestines and so miserable condition… In the belly or the abdomen of the mother, the child remains in a very miserable condition. Because the consciousness is not developed. But as soon as the consciousness is developed at the age of seven months, the child wants to come out. Therefore it moves. If it is male child, then it moves toward the right side. If it is female child, then it moves to the left side. So these are description in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. So by the movement of the child you can understand whether it is male or female. [woman exclaims] So this transcendental sound is not checked by any material condition. Therefore it reaches. Therefore it is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā that śucīnāṁ śrīmatāṁ gehe yoga-bhraṣṭo’bhijāyate [Bg. 6.41]. One who cannot execute the full course of yoga system, he’s given chance to take birth in the family of a pious man or a rich man. So, as you parents, you have taken to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, the child who is coming, he’s not an ordinary child. He must have executed in his previous life the yoga siddhi. If you believe Bhagavad-gītā you have to accept. 

Devotee: Is Arjuna described in disciplic succession?[?] I mean… 

Prabhupāda: Yes. 

Devotee: How come the other incarnations are [indistinct]? 

Prabhupāda: Arjuna is disciple of Kṛṣṇa, that is known. Then what is your next question? 

Devotee: Did Kṛṣṇa describe to Arjuna the disciplic succession? 

Prabhupāda: Yes. He said that “I am speaking to you Bhagavad-gītā because you are My devotee, you are My confidential friend.” That is the qualification to receive this from disciplic succession. That is the qualification. He, he, Arjuna did not go to instruct, yes, Kṛṣṇa did not like to instruct the confidential system of yoga to any so-called impersonalist or so-called Vedantist. Arjuna was ordinary householder. He was, of course, belonging to the royal family. He was a great warrior, that’s all, but he did not belong to the brāhmaṇa family or any learned scholar. He was a military man. Then why Kṛṣṇa to discuss the mystery of Bhagavad-gītā to him? Because his qualification is accepted by Kṛṣṇa that, “I am speaking to you that old system of Bhagavad-gītā, Arjuna, because you are My devotee and you are My confidential friend.” So we have to become a devotee or we have to establish a transcendental relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Then it is possible to understand what is the mystery of Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā cannot be understood by so-called scholars by academic degrees. One has to become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. One has to become a friend or some way related with Kṛṣṇa. Then it is possible to understand Bhagavad-gītā. Otherwise it is impossible. 

My Guru Mahārāja used to say that one who is licking up the bottle of honey. He is thinking that “I am licking honey,” but that is impossible[?]. Similarly, the so-called scholars when they comment on Bhagavad-gītā, they are licking up the bottle of honey. The taste of honey is different. That taste one can get when the bottle is opened by [indistinct] person. Then he can taste the Bhagavad-gītā. Otherwise licking up the bottle, that’s all. If one is satisfied by licking up the bottle of honey, without tasting it. Then is he not a fool? [laughter] The fools say “I have got the honey!” but it is not opened. Therefore in Bhagavad-gītā it is said rahasyaṁ hy etad uttamam. Rahasyam, the transcendental secrecy[?] of Bhagavad-gītā. That secret will not be opened to a so-called scholar or academic educated. It must be taken from the [indistinct] authorized person. Evaṁ paramparā prāptam [Bg. 4.2]. By disciplic succession… Otherwise… [end] 

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