Cc. Madhya 22.6 — January 8, 1967, New York


śrutir mātā pṛṣṭā diśati bhavad-ārādhana-vidhiṁ
yathā mātur vāṇī smṛtir api tathā vakti bhaginī
purāṇādyā ye vā sahaja nivahās te tad anugā
ataḥ satyaṁ jñātaṁ murahara bhavān eva śaraṇam

So this learned sage, by his experience he is saying that after studying all Vedic literature, and all Upaniṣads, Vedānta, Purāṇam, four Vedas, Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, volumes of literature, so the conclusion is that, “O my dear Lord,” bhavān eva śaraṇam, “You are the only ultimate shelter.” This is the last stage of knowledge, as it is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante [Bg. 7.19]. “After struggling for many, many births to acquire knowledge…” So when one comes to this point—bhavān eva śaraṇam, “You are the ultimate shelter”—that is the perfection of knowledge. Our editor has written very nice article, “Kṛṣṇa, the End of Knowledge.” Yes. When you come to Kṛṣṇa point, then everything is knowledge, knowable. Of course, so far our knowledge is concerned… But so far Kṛṣṇa is concerned, He is unlimited. Nobody can know Him. But at least to that point, if we can reach… That is also very difficult. Simply to reach to that point, there are the struggle. So many scholars, so many still, coming to the nearest point, still, they say, “Oh, not Kṛṣṇa, not Kṛṣṇa. It is impersonal. It is impersonal.” So this knowledge is acquired by the grace of the Supreme Lord, by the association of pure devotees. Satāṁ prasaṅgāt mama vīrya-saṁvidaḥ, one can attain this qualification. And if some way or other, either by faith or by knowledge or by association or by accident, if one comes to this point, that “Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme, is the ultimate goal,” then his life is perfect. 

advaya-jñāna-tattva kṛṣṇa-svayaṁ bhagavān
‘svarūpa-śakti’ rūpe tāṅra haya avasthāna

Now, Lord Caitanya says that Kṛṣṇa, the Absolute Truth, advaya-jñāna-tattva, who is Absolute Truth, Kṛṣṇa, svayaṁ bhagavān, the Supreme Personality… The Absolute Truth in the ultimate is a person. In the Bhagavad-gītā you will see in the Eleventh Chapter that Kṛṣṇa was requested by Arjuna to show His universal form, because for ordinary persons, that universal form is…, the gigantic universal form is supposed to be… That is God. But they do not know. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānanto [Bg. 9.11]. They do not know that this universal form is only an offshoot of Kṛṣṇa. They do not know. Less intelligent class of men, they think impersonal form or the universal form or even the four-handed Viṣṇu form… They consider that they are greater. But in the Eleventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā you will find that Kṛṣṇa, by the request of Arjuna, assumed His universal form, viśvarūpa. Now, after seeing the viśvarūpa Arjuna was afraid. He was in friendly relationship with Kṛṣṇa, and when he saw His viśvarūpa, he became too much perturbed in his mind: “Oh, what mistake I have done. I took Kṛṣṇa as my friend, and I do not know how much offenses I have committed. Friendly relation, there are sometimes very slackened languages and used sometimes calling, ‘You, Kṛṣṇa,’ sometimes…, so many things. Friendly relations are very relaxation relation.” So he thought that “I have committed so much offenses to Kṛṣṇa,” and he begged pardon. “Out of my impudence, out of my ignorance, I have done so many things. Please excuse just like a father excuses his son, just like a friend excuses his friend, just like husband excuses wife or the wife excuses.” These things are there. 

Then again he asked Kṛṣṇa to assume His four-handed Nārāyaṇa-rūpa. So Kṛṣṇa also showed him the Nārāyaṇa four-handed rūpa. And then again Kṛṣṇa transformed Himself again into that two-handed Śyāmasundara with flute, and as it is, He transformed Himself. Now, the question is: If Kṛṣṇa is ordinary person, just like some foolish commentators say, “Not to Kṛṣṇa,” then how could He assume this viśvarūpa and the Nārāyaṇa-rūpa? Can an ordinary person assume that rūpa, that form? It is not possible. Therefore the answer in the Bhagavad-gītā is avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā [Bg. 9.11]. There is stated, paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ: “They do not know.” Now, Arjuna wanted to confirm this paraṁ bhāvam, that the less intelligent class of men who are fond of the universal form or the Viṣṇu, Nārāyaṇa form, and there are so many innumerable forms… Advaita acyuta anādi ananta-rūpam. Kṛṣṇa has ananta-rūpa. But the ultimate, supreme form is Kṛṣṇa. They do not know. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ. Ajānantaḥ means they do not know that paraṁ bhāva. So here the same thing is confirmed by Lord Caitanya, that He says, advaya-jñāna-tattva kṛṣṇa-svayaṁ bhagavān. 

So the Absolute Truth, the ultimate stage of realizing Absolute Truth, is to understand Kṛṣṇa. Brahman realization, Paramātmā realization, they are not perfect realization of the Absolute Truth. Partial realization. Brahman realization means realization of the Absolute Truth in eternity. That’s all. Paramātmā realization of the Absolute Truth is realization of eternity and knowledge. And Kṛṣṇa realization means full realization of the Absolute Truth, means eternity, knowledge, and bliss. Without Kṛṣṇa knowledge we cannot be blissful. But by nature we are blissful. In the Brahma-sūtra, in the Vedānta-sūtra, it is stated, ānandamayo abhyāsāt. Every living entity, Brahman… Living entities, they are Brahman, and Kṛṣṇa is also Para-brahman. So Brahman and Para-brahman, both of them are by nature joyful. They want joy, enjoyment. So our joyfulness is in connection with Kṛṣṇa, just like fire and the sparks of fire. The sparks of fire, so long manifested with the fire, it is beautiful. And as soon as the sparks of fire falls down from the original fire, oh, it is extinguished, no more beautiful. So we are in the same relationship with Kṛṣṇa. He is the complete whole; we are parts and parcels. Just like the complete whole fire and the sparks of fire. When the fire and the sparks are displayed, it looks very nice. Both of them enjoy. And when the spark… Of course, fire has unlimited potency to produce sparks. But the sparks, when is out of the fire, fireplace, then it loses its identity, and this is called conditioned life. We are in that conditioned life. We are fire, sparks of fire. But because we are in material contamination, therefore we have become conditioned. 

So knowledge means to understand… Beginning of knowledge is to understand one’s constitutional position. That knowledge is imparted in the beginning of the Bhagavad-gītā, that “You are not this body. You are spirit spark.” 

dehino ‘smin yathā dehe
kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
tathā dehāntara-prāptir
dhīras tatra na muhyati
[Bg. 2.13]

So you are spark, spiritual spark. You are simply changing dress. That is your conditioned stage. So Lord Caitanya says, advaya-jñāna-tattva kṛṣṇa-svayaṁ bhagavān. Svayaṁ bhagavān, the Absolute Truth… ‘Svarūpa śakti’ rūpe tāṅra haya avasthāna: “He is situated in His internal potency.” Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says, 

yadā yadā hi dharmasya
glānir bhavati bhārata
abhyutthānam adharmasya…
[Bg. 4.7]
paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ
vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām
sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā
[Bg. 4.8]

Ātma-māyayā, internal potency. He is situated in the spiritual world by internal potency. And this is, this material world, His external potency. Therefore, although external potency is also Kṛṣṇa’s potency—it is not different from Kṛṣṇa—but Kṛṣṇa is not here in the external potency. Kṛṣṇa is in the internal potency, although this potency is not different. Therefore it is inferior. It is inferior energy, it is called. And this, this is explained very nicely in the Bhagavad-gītā. Mayā tatam idaṁ sarvaṁ jagat avyakta-mūrtinā: [Bg. 9.4] “By Me the whole spiritual and material world is manifested.” Tatam idam. How it is manifested? Just like the sun and sunshine. Sunshine is manifested all over the universe, and sun is the central point. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is the central point, and His shining brahma-jyotir is diffused all over. And the part of that brahma-jyotir, when it is, I mean to say, covered by the cloud of mahat-tattva, that is called material existence. So we are in this darkness. So Kṛṣṇa says, Lord Cai… So his place is in the internal potency. ‘Svarūpa-śakti’ rūpe tāṅra haya avasthāna. He is situated there in His internal potency. 

svāṁśa-vibhinnāṁśa-rūpe hañā vistāra
ananta vaikuṇṭha-brahmāṇḍe karena vihāra

Now, then Kṛṣṇa, He expands Himself. Eko bahu śyāma. That is the Vedic version: “One is expanding into many.” And how that many is manifested? That is explained here, that svāṁśa, vibhinnāṁśa. He expands Himself as person, Himself, and as parts. As person, Himself, that expansion is called Viṣṇu-tattva. And the vibhinnāṁśa, separated expansion, we are, living entities. We are also expansion. The expansion of Viṣṇu-tattva is just like Rāma, Nṛsiṁha, Varāha, all the incarnation, all Viṣṇu-tattva, Rāma, Nṛsiṁha. There are so many thousands and millions of expansions, svāṁśa, personal self and separated self. We are also Kṛṣṇa’s part and parcel expansion; therefore we have got intimate relationship with Kṛṣṇa. 

svāṁśa-vibhinnāṁśa-rūpe hañā vistāra
ananta vaikuṇṭha-brahmāṇḍe karena vihāra

So Kṛṣṇa is both in the spiritual world and the material world. Because we represent Kṛṣṇa, we are in this brahmāṇḍa conditioned. But there are many living entities who are eternally liberated. They never come to this. How it is, that? Just like the ocean and the rivers. In river, in the river, you will find fishes, and in the ocean you will find fishes. But the… Sometimes it may be that the fishes of the river may go to the ocean, but the fishes of the ocean never comes to the river. Never comes to the river. There is no place for them. This is a crude example. Similarly… And as the ocean is far, far greater than the river-thousands of rivers cannot be compared with the, I mean to say, measurement of the ocean—similarly, thousands and millions of this material world cannot be compared with the spiritual world. The spiritual world is so great that millions of material world taken together, it can be dropped into the spiritual world. It is such great. Therefore material world is called one-fourth manifestation of Kṛṣṇa’s energy. And the spiritual world is called three-fourth manifestation of Kṛṣṇa’s energy. 

svāṁśa-vibhinnāṁśa-rūpe hañā vistāra
ananta vaikuṇṭha-brahmāṇḍe karena vihāra
svāṁśa-vistāra-catur-vyūha avatāra-gaṇa
vibhinnāṁśa jīva-tāṅra śaktite gaṇana

Now, svāṁśa, His personal expansion, is catur-vyūha. The first expansion is catur-vyūha. Svayaṁ rūpa, svayaṁ prakāśa. Svayam rūpa, the personal self, Kṛṣṇa. And when He begins to expand, the next immediate expansion is Balarāma, Baladeva. And from Baladeva, catur-vyūha, four expansion. Kāya-vyūha. He is guarding, vyūha, guarding. What are those expansion? Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Vāsudeva, these expansion, catur-vyūha. And from Saṅkarṣaṇa, all kinds of incarnations… From Saṅkarṣaṇa, all kinds of incarnation comes. In this way we have already discussed to some extent in the previous chapter. Vibhinnāṁśa jīva-tāṅra śaktite gaṇana. And the separated expansions, the living entities, they are counted as a different energy of the Supreme Lord. Just like there is difference between the heat and the fire. Fire is with heat, but heat is, although has got the fire’s qualification, it is not fire. Heat you can touch, but fire you cannot touch. Just like there is some distinction. But there is no distinction also because fire is also hot and heat is also hot. But still, there is distinction between fire and heat. So heat, what is the position of heat? Heat is energy of fire. Similarly, although we are expansion of the Supreme Lord, we jīvas, living entities, we are just like heat, not fire. Fire is Kṛṣṇa. 


sei vibhinnāṁśa jīva-dui ta’ prakāra
eka-‘nitya-mukta’, eka-‘nitya saṁsāra’

Now, this energy manifested as the living entities, they are also two kinds. What are they? Eka-nitya-mukta. One class of living entities, they are eternally liberated. Just like the fishes in the ocean. Take the ocean as the place of liberation. Sometimes the example is given that as the rivers glide down to the ocean and the water is become one… That’s all right. That oneness… This is impersonal conception. Everyone goes and mixes as every river goes down to the ocean, and there is no more distinction which is the river water and which is the ocean water. They become one. That is the monistic philosophy. But Vaiṣṇava philosophy goes farther, that “Why you are satisfied with the water? Why don’t you see within the water?” Within the water you will find there are big, big fishes and aquatic animals. They keep their separate identity, and they enjoy in the ocean. The foolish persons, they are satisfied that “I am in the ocean now.” That is the less intelligence. Go deep into the ocean and see what is going there. Similarly, those who are satisfied simply by merging into the spiritual existence, impersonalists, they are less intelligent. They have no intelligence to see that within the ocean there is individual expansion, individual life, and they are enjoying. Similarly, in the spiritual sky there is individuality. That individuality is there. And that individuality is reciprocated between Kṛṣṇa and the individual souls. They are called nitya-mukta, eternally liberated. And the other class, who are just like in the river fishes, they are called nitya-baddha. Their, I mean to say, limited sphere in the river or in the pond or in the well… The frog philosophy. They are expanding themselves, frogs: “How much great is Atlantic Ocean?” So they are called conditioned soul. Those who are in this material world, although they are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord energy, but because they are conditioned in this material contamination, they are called, I mean to say, conditioned, conditioned by the laws of nature. 

So the whole process is… To understand these thing means that why should we remain conditioned under the laws of material nature? Let us try to go back to the ocean and become as big. That should be the philosophy of your life. 

Thank you very much. Any question? [end] 

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