Glossary J

Jaḍa Bharata

Bharata Mahārāja in his final birth as a renounced brāhmaṇa. He gave wonderful spiritual instruction to Mahārāja Rahūgaṇa.


invalidity, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.


the Supreme Lord, who is the proprietor of all the universes.


the spiritual master of the whole world.

Jagad-rūpa (Virāṭ-rūpa, Viśva-rūpa)

The universal form of īśvara, in which jīva, prakṛti, kāla and karma are revealed as energies of the Supreme. This form was shown by Lord Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna in the Eleventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā. See Īśvara, Kṛṣṇa.

Jagāi and Mādhāi

two great debauchees whom Lord Nityānanda converted into Vaiṣṇavas.


the area directly in front of the central altar of an Orissan temple.

Jagannātha Purī

place of pilgrimage on the east coast of India where the deity of Jagannātha is worshiped


the Supreme Lord, who is Lord of the universe. A particular Deity form of Lord Krṣṇa, seemingly fashioned from wood and brightly painted, which has been worshiped for many centuries in Jagannātha Purī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to daily visit Lord Jagannātha and see Him in a mood of intense separation, in the mood of Rādhārāṇī, who was parted from her beloved Kṛṣṇa most of her days.

Jagannatha Misra

Kṛṣṇa’s eternal father, Nada Maharaj of Kṛṣṇa-lila.


the ecstatic symptom of wakefulness.


the material universe.


system of patron-client relationships.


name for Kṛṣṇa indicating that He is the ultimate resort of all living entities.


the atheistic propounder and philosopher of Karma-mimāṁsā philosophy, and author of the Karma-mīmāṁsā-sūtras, which explain the Vedas in ritualistic terms, and advocate material work as the purpose of life. He theorized that if fruitive activity is performed nicely, then God is obliged to give the results.


religious sect based on impersonalist ideas.


the daughter of Jāmbavān. She is one of the eight principal queens of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Janaka Mahārāja

considered one of the mahājanas, the great self-realized king of Mithilā, and the father of Sītā-devī, consort of Lord Rāmacandra.


a heavenly planet.


the son of King Parīkṣit.


a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who is the original abode and protector of all living beings”.


see: Janaloka above


moving Nārāyaṇa.


the celebration of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s appearance in the material world; the eighth lunar day of the dark fortnight in the month of Bhadra (August-September). The festival of Kṛṣṇa’s birthday.


the soft recitation of the Kṛṣṇa’s holy names as a private meditation, with the aid of 108 prayer beads.


the King of Magadha. He was killed by Bhīma. (Sabhā Parva in Mahābhārata)


old age.


a Rākṣasa who disguised himself as a brāhmaṇa and tried to kidnap Draupadī and four of the Pāṇḍavas except for Bhīma. Bhīma challenged him and killed him in single combat.


a devotee of Lord Rāmacandra who was the king of the vultures, and the brother of Sampāti. He fought with the demon Rāvaṇa when the latter kidnapped Sītā, the consort of Lord Rāmacandra.


a purificatory ceremony performed at the birth of a child.

Jaya and Vijaya

two doorkeepers of Vaikuṇṭha who were cursed on account of offending the four Kumāra Ṛṣis, and who thus both had to take birth three times in the material world as great demons, Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa in Satya-yuga, Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa in the next yuga, Tretā-yuga, and Śiśupāla and Dantavakra at the end of Dvāpara-yuga.

Jayadeva Gosvāmī

a great Vaisnava poet and author of Gita-govinda.


the King of Sindhu. He was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)


nine great sages, sons of King Bharata, who were also known as the nine Yogendras.


the son of Jarāsandha. He took the side of Duryodhana in the Kurukṣetra war and was killed by Abhimanyu. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)


a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra who was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)




an exclamation meaning “All victory to you!” or “All glories to you!”

Jhulana yatra

the swing festival beginning on the third day of the month of Shravan (July-August) and lasting for a fortnight. The swings, usually made from gold or silver, are hung in temples on which the Deities are swung during kirtan by the guests and Vaisnavas.


honorific suffix added to almost any name as a term of endearment


a wrestler who was killed by Bhīma during a wrestling match in the kingdom of Virāṭa.


the fatigued air of life.


one who has conquered the senses.

Jīva (jīvātmā)

the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord; One of the five tattvas, or Vedic ontological truths: the living entity, or individual soul. See Soul, Tattva.

Jīva Gosvāmī

one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana and the nephew of Rupa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs. His father, Anupama, died when the boy was very young. He grew up absorbed in the worship of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Lord Caitanya instructed him in a dream to proceed to Navadvīpa, and there he toured that sacred place in the association of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. He then went to Benares to study Sanskrit, and from there to Vṛndāvana to be under the shelter of his uncles. He became a disciple of Rūpa Gosvāmī and wrote eighteen major works on Vaiṣṇava philosophy, comprising more than 400,000 verses. He is considered by many philosophers and Sanskritists to be the greatest scholar who ever lived.

Jīva Jago

wake up sleeping souls.


the living force within matter. Jīva (jīvātmā)-the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.


envy of other living entities.


the living entities.


the living entities, atomic parts of the Supreme Lord.


a person who is already liberated even while living in his present body.


the power to distribute transcendental knowledge.


the division of the Vedas dealing with empirical speculation in pursuit of truth; also, such speculation itself; the portions of the Vedas containing knowledge of Brahman, or spirit.


the cultivation of knowledge.


the process of approaching the Supreme by the cultivation of knowledge; the predominantly empirical process of linking with the Supreme, which is executed when one is still attached to mental speculation.


knowledge. Material jñāna does not go beyond the material body. Transcendental jñāna discriminates between matter and spirit. Perfect jñāna is knowledge of the body, the soul and the Supreme Lord.


one who is engaged in the cultivation of knowledge (especially by philosophical speculation). Upon attaining perfection, a jñānī surrenders to Kṛṣṇa; This Sanskrit term is related in both form and meaning to the English word know via the Greek word gnsis. In Vedic terminology, there is jñāna and vijñāna. Jñāna refers to the knowledge of the self as not the body, whereas vijñāna refers to knowledge of the self’s relationship to the Supreme Self.


a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who is understood through knowledge of the Vedas.”


The path of philosophical speculation. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, jñāna-kāṇḍa is taught by the Kumāras. See Apara-vidyā, Karma-kāṇḍa, Upāsanā-kāṇḍa.


The five knowledge-acquiring senses: the ears, the skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nostrils.


the stage exhibited by a devotee when more than two or three transcendental transformations are manifest and it is possible to conceal them with difficulty.


one of the 12 selfmanifested Śiva-lingas


the Vedic science of astronomy.

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