Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā, Chapter 5 [Handwritten]
[This file has been proofread against the handwritten original. Only very obvious typos and spelling errors have been corrected in order to retain the mood of the original.—Ed.]
Shi Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.V (P.203)
The summary of the 5th chapter is given below: It is chiefly devoted to describe the essential nature and glories of Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Lord Shri Krishna is the Absolute Personality of Godhead. His pastimes Form and next or 2nd expansion is Shri Vala Rama. There is an eternal nature called by the name transcendental sky far beyond the manifestion of cosmos. In that transcendental sky there are innumerable transcendental planets and the one which is situated on the topmost position is called the abode of Krishna. That abode of Krishna is divided into three compartments called by the names Dwarka, Mathura and Gokula. In that abode the Personality of Godhead expands Himself in four plenary portions as Krishna Valarama, Pradyumna or the transcendental Cupid and Aniruddha. All these combined together is known as original quadruforms. In that abode of Krishna as referred above there is a transcendental place which is called Swetadwipa or Vrindabana. Below that abode of Krishna all other transcendental planets are called Vaikunthas or transcendental sky. In these planets many other pastimeous Forms of Shri Krishna predominate and He is called Narayana with four hands. In the abode of Krishna, Shri Valadeva is also called as original Samkarshan (attracting Deity) and from this Samkarshan expands another Samkarshan called by the name Mahasamkarshan residing at Vaikuntha. By the internal potency of this Mahasamkarshan, the transcendental eternal nature is manifested and such manifestation is immune from the qualitative modes. There also reside the living beings who are all liberated souls. In other words all the living beings and all the manifestions of that eternal nature are completely different from the one which is the creation of Maya Shakti or illusory extenal potency of Godhead.
In the Narayana Dhama, there is the 2nd manifestation of quadru forms of Godhead. This transcendental sky, which is the outer space of Vaikunthas is called Brahmaloka or impersonal manifestation of Shri Krishna
And beyond this impersonal glowing manifestation there is a flow of spiritual water called by the name of causal ocean. This material cosmos is situated on the other bank of this causal ocean without being touched by it. In this causal ocean another plenary portion of the original Samkarshan resides within the spiritual water and He is known as the original incarnation of Godhead. It is this original incarnation only Who throws a glance over the material potency as described above and by this act of glancing only by one of His bodily part, ingredients of external potency became contacted with the causal ocean. And then the external potency Maya becomes the ingrediental-cum causal agent or the chief agent and as immediate cause she becomes known material Nature.
In fact the transcendental glancing of Vishnu over the material nature is the efficient cause of creation and as such material nature is only immediate cause for indirect action. That incarnation of Godhead lying within the causal ocean again expands Himself as 2nd incarnation Who enters within the total universal creation and this incarnation of Godhead called by the name of Garvodashaye Vishnu expands Himself into innumerable expansions to enter into each and every universe as well as within the heart of each and every living being. This incarnation of Godhead is called Khirode-Shayee Vishnu and He has His own planet in each of the innumerable universes. This planet used as the abode of Khirode-Shayee Vishnu is also essentially a Vaikuntha within the universe. He lives in that Vaikuntha Planet known as Vishnu, Paramatma, and Iswara (God) and in the watery portion of each and every universe He lives also on the bed of Sesha-serpent. This lying in the Shesha-serpent Vishnu is the progenator of Brahma and universal feature of Godhead (Viratrupa) is partial imagination of the Vishnu.
In the planet of Vaikuntha of each and every universe there is a ocean of milk and within that ocean there is an island called SwetaDwipa. Lord Vishnu lives there in that island. We have therefore two SwetaDwipa. One is situated in the abode of Krishna and the other is situated in each every ocean of milk in every universe.
The Sweta Dwipa in the abode of Krishna is identical with Vrindabandham which is the place where Krishna appears Himself to display His homely pastimes. Within the universe the Shesha Form of Godhead serves Vishnu in the shape of umbrella, slipper, bedding, pillow, dress, residence, sacred thread, coach etc.
Shri Valadeva expansion of Krishna, in the abode of Krishna, is Lord Nityananda and therefore He is original Shankarsan. As such the Mahasamkarshan Form in the Vaikuntha of transcendental sky as well as His incarnations in the causal ocean etc.—all are therefore plenary parts or parts of plenary parts of Shri Nityananda Prabhu.
The author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita has recorded in this chapter the history of his personal pilgrimage to Vrindaban and his achievement of all success there. In that description it is revealed that the author’s original paternal home and birth place is in the division of Katwa where there is a village called ‘Jhamatpur’ near Naihati there. The author had another brother, one personal associate of Nityananda Prabhu, known as Shri Miniketan Ramdas, was invited at the author’s place but he was disrespected by the priest of the deity. In that misunderstanding the brother of the author took side with the priest and did not recognise Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Shi Miniketan Ramdas left the place at once and broke his flute. As a result of this the brother of the author met with severe calamities. And in that very night Kaviraj Goswami left his paternal house for Vrindaban after being properly graced and empowered by Srila Nityananda Prabhu during night in dream.
The author in his usual humility offers his humble prayers to Sri Nityananda Prabhu who is no other than the Lord full with unlimited potencies. Nobody can know Him by his poor fund of knowledge but by the Grace of the Lord even a person appearing as ignorant can know Him in His actual identity.
The author has described essentially the identity of Lord Chaitanya and the three reasons of His appearing incarnated,—in six slokas. Now he will describe the essential nature of Lord Nityananda Prabhu in another five slokas.
Lord Shri Krishna the absolute Personality of Godhead is the Primeval Lord original Form of Godhead and His 2nd next expansion is Shri Valadeva. The Personality of Godhead can expand Himself by His innumerable Forms and there are actually innumerable Forms of Him. Forms which have unlimited potencies are called Samsa and forms which have limited potencies (living entities) are called ‘Vivinansha. In that business of expansion the 2nd next expansion from Lord Krishna—is Sri Valadeva. As mentioned above Valadeva is Samsa expansion and therefore there is no difference of potential power between Krishna and Valarama. The only difference is in the bodily structure. Being the 1st expansion of Godhead He (Valadeva) is the chief Deity amongst the first quadruforms and He (Valadeva) is the first assistant of Shri Krishna in the matter of His transcendental activities.
We can conclude therefore that in Nabadwipa (formerly a big city, bigger than present Calcutta) Lord Shri Krishna appeared as Lord Chaitanya (previously Nimai Pandit) and Shri Valadeva appeared as Shri Nityananda Prabhu.
According to the record in the diary of Srila Swarup Damodar Goswami, Lord Nityananda being self-same Valadeva, He is also Samkarsan, The 1st incarnation Who is lying down within the causal ocean, the 2nd incarnation Who is lying within the total universes and the 3rd incarnation Who is lying down in ocean of milk in each every universe separately. And the Shesa in serpent form is also His plenary portion. Swarup Damodar Goswami has offered his respectful obeisances to Nityananda Prabhu in that mood.
According to the expert opinion Valadeva, being the chief of the original quadru forms, He is called the original Samkarsan also. The reason is that He i.e. Valadeva being the next 2nd expansion of Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead Who in His turn again expands Himself as (1) Mahasamkarsan, (2) Karanshayee, (3) Garvodashayee and (4) KhirodaShayee as well as (5) Shesa plenary portions. These five plenary portions are responsible for the cosmic manifestations both spiritual and material also. The whole activities being different pastimes of Lord Krishna, He is so to say is assisted and helped by Shri Valadeva in the Forms of above mentioned five expansions. Out of the above five the 1st fours namely Mahasamkarsan, Karanshayee Vishnu, Garvoda shayee Vishnu and Khirodashayee Vishnu are responsible for all kinds of cosmic manifestation whereas Shesa is responsible for personal service of the Lord. Shesa is known as Ananta or the unlimited because He assists the Personality of Godhead in His unlimited expansive forms, by unlimited varieties of services. Taking the whole into one, Shri Valadeva is servitor—Godhead and He serves Krishna in all affairs existence and knowledge.
Nityananda Prabhu, who is the same servitor Godhead Valarama, does the same service to Lord Gouranga by constant association.
The seventh sloka regarding the essential nature of Shri Nityananda Prabhu, is explained in four other auxiliary Slokas and by their proper explanation one is able to know the exact position of Srila Nityananda Prabhu. The next sloka compiled by Shri Swarup Damodar Goswami, is explained as follows:—
“Mayatite (far beyond the material sky and transcendental to the material cosmos) vyapi vaikuntha loke (in the realm of spiritual nature where the lokas or the planets are called Vaikunthas which have nothing to do with the constitution of material cosmos and which are absolute in nature) Purnaiswarye Sri Chaturbuhamadhye (there are the quadruforms of Vasudeva, Samkarsan, Pradyumna and Aniruddhas who are full with all godly potential energies.) Madhye yasya (Amongst them) Samkarsankhyam rupam (the name of Samkarsan is the direct expansion of Shrila Nityananda Prabhu) tam Nityananda ramam aham prapadye (I do offer my complete surrender unto that Nityananda Rama)
According to Samkhya philosophy the material cosmos is analysed into 24 twenty four elements and beyond that the empiric philosophers are unable to go. As such they leave out the speculation as ‘Abyakta’ non-explicable. But it is not non-explicable but it is explained in the Bhagwat Geeta as the Sanatan or eternal nature. That is beyond the manifested and non-manifested (Avyakta) existence of material nature. That Sanatan nature is called ‘Parabyoma’ or the spiritual sky. That nature being spiritual in quality there is not any qualitative difference there. Everything is spiritual there and therefore everything is as good and as are spiritual Form of Shri Krishna Himself. That spiritual sky is the manifestation of internal potency of Shri Krishna distinguished from the material sky manifested by His external potency. The all pervasive Brahman or the impersonal glowing ray of Shri Krishna along with the Vaikuntha Planets exist there. We can just have an idea only of that spiritual sky by a mere comparison only with the material sky. In the material sky there is the sun ray which can be compared with Brahmajyoti in the spiritual sky. And along with the sunrays there are innumerable material planets in the outer space or sky. Similarly in the glowing Brahmajyoti which is the ray of the Personality of Godhead—there are unlimited Vaikuntha planets which are spiritually made and therefore self-illuminating being many many times more glowing than the Sun planet. In these planets of Vaikuntha The Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna and His innumerable plenary portion or portion of plenary portions expansively dominates in each and every Vaikuntha planets.
In the highest region of that spiritual sky there is the spiritual planet called by the name of Krishnaloka divided into three compartments namely Dwarka, Mathura and Gokula.
To the gross materialists this kingdom of God or Vaikuntha is certainly a mystery. But to a ignorant man in the street everything is a mystery for want of sufficient knowledge. As such kingdom of God or Vaikuntha is not a mystery nor myth. Even the material planets which are hanging upon our head in millions and billions of number—are still a mystery to the ignorant person. The material scientist are just making an attempt to disclose this mystery and a day may come when the people of this earth may be able to travel in the outer space and see eye to eye the variegatedness of the millions of other planets. In each and every planet there are as much material variegatedness as we have experience in our own planet. This planet earth is but an insignificant spot in the cosmic structure. Foolish men, puffed up with false sense of advancement of science, have concentrated their energy in pursuit of so-called economic development in this planet without knowing different variegatedness and more economic facilities are available in other planets.
Recently one Soviet Scientist (Mr Nikolai Barabasov) who is also a prominent astronomer, has written a new book on the moon. According to his estimation the gravity of moon is different from here. If somebody goes to the moon then he will be able to pick up large weights and to jump high and wide. In the Ramayana Hanuman is described to be able to life very large weights as big as a hill and he jumped over the sea very high and wide. The soviet astronomer has practically confirmed this possibility.
The disease of the modern civilized men is to disbelieve everything in the revealed scriptures. This faithless disbelievers cannot make any progress in spiritual realization. It is all the question of potency only. A small fruit of the banian tree contains hundreds of seeds and each and every seed is a potency for producing another banian tree with potency of producing lacs and crores of such fruits. This law of nature is visible before us and it is all beyond our estimation how they are happening. That is an insignificant example of the potency of Godhead and there are many things which no scientist can explain. Everything is inconceivable. The truth is revealed only to the proper persons. There are varieties of Personalities beginning from Brahma down to the insignificant ant. Both of them are living beings but the development of knowledge is different, Therefore we have to gather knowledge from the right source and as such we can get only knowledge in reality from the Vedic sources. All the four vedas combined with supplementary puranas Mahabharat, Ramayana, and corollaries known by the name of Smritis are all authorized sources of knowledge. If we have to gather knowledge at all we have to gather it from them without any hesitation. Knowledge revealed therein, may appear in the beginning to be unbelievable. This is due to our nonsensical paradox that we want to verify everything by accommodating in our tiny brain. That sort of knowledge is always imperfect. The perfect knowledge is propelled in the revealed scriptures and confirmed by the great Acharyas. They have left ample commentation also upon them but none of them have disbelieved the Shastras. Anyone disbelieving the Sastras is called an atheist. We may not consult an atheist however great he may be. A staunch believer in the Shastras with all diversities is the right person from whom we can gather real knowledge. They may seem to be inconceivable in the beginning but pushed forward in the proper channel they become revealed to us without leaving any doubt about it.
Shrila Jiva Goswami the great authority and philosopher in the line of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has presented his thesis ‘Krishna Sandarbha’ and he has discussed about the Abode of Krishna (Swetadwipa). In the Bhagwat Geeta also the abode of Krishna is described by the Lord as “My abode”
Shrila Jiva Goswami thus puts the question as to what may be the nature of the abode of Krishna. He refers to the Skandha Puranam in which it is stated that in the material world the abode of Godhead, such as Dwarka, Mathura, Gokula, Ayodhya(?) etc. are facsimile representation of the abodes of Godhead situated in the Kingdom of God or in the Vaikuntha dhama. Far beyond and above the material cosmos, there is spiritual atmosphere of unlimited space and that space in total is called Vaikunthadhama. In the Swayabhu Tantra the place of Vaikuntha is definitely stated above the material cosmos. In that Tantra, in connection with the meditation process by fourteen letters, there is a conversation between Lord Shiva and Parvati (85th Patal) and in that conversation it is revealed “That one should meditate upon very wide and extensive Vaikuntha full with various desire trees and plants. This desire tree is different from ordinary trees. They are spiritual in nature can deliver anything desired. And below that region the potential material energy is situated which causes the material manifestation. From this statement it is clear that Dwarka, Mathura or Gokula stationed in the Krishnaloka are not differently situated than the Dwarka, Mathura and Gokula we have in our experience.
It also appears from this statement that the topmost region in the Krishnaloka, celebrated as Vrindaban-Gokul, is also famous as Goloka Vrindaban in the spiritual sky. So in the Brahma Samhita also the description is given that the place Gokula resembles a lotus flower with one thousand petals and that is the highest region of the Kingdom of God. Within that region, a place encircled by four curved lines is called “Swetadwipa” In that Swetadwipa there is elaborate arrangement for Shri Krishna’s residence along with eternal associates such as Nanda-Yasoda and others. The nature of that Swetadwipa is described as below:—That transcendental place is maintained(?) by Shri Baladeva who is the original whole of Shesha or Ananta. In the Tantras also the same description is ratified by its statement that the place where Shri Anantadeva plenary portion of Valadeva, lives and exists that place is called the kingdom of God. Boundary of Gokula is also described. out side the transcendental place, there is a quadrangular place which is called Swetadwipa. And the innermost place within the quadrangular place, is called Vrindabandham. only the outskirts of Vrindaban is called Swetadwipa which is also known as Goloka. Vaikuntha is also called Brahmaloka in the sense that constitutionally there is no difference between them but there is difference in Variegatedness as much there is difference between the Sun dial and the Sun-rays. In the Narada Pancharatra there is a statement like this in connection with the story of Bijoya. It is said there that on the topmost part of the spiritual sky there is a place called Goloka where Govinda, Who is the Predominator over the Gopis and who is the Principal Deity of Gokula—does always enjoy Himself in that region.
From all the above mentioned revealed scriptures, it is now concluded that the abode of Krishna is situated on the highest and topmost part of the spiritual sky which is also far beyond and above the material cosmos. And the pastimes of Krishna there in transcendental varieties for enjoyment are divided into three and according to such variegatedness of His pastimes, the places where He does so are called (1) Dwarka, (2) Mathura and 3 Gokula respectively. And such places on the earth are non different from those original places. Like the existence of a facsimile of Vaikuntha within the universe, these holy places of Dwarka, Mathura and Gokula are also facsimiles of the original ones situated in the transcendental world.
Such Dhamas or holy places are as good as Shri Krishna Himself and all of them are equally worshipable. Lord Chaitanya recommends that Lord Krishna, Who presents Himself as the son of the King of Braja is worshipable and so also Vrindabandham is equally worshipable.
These Dhamas as above mentioned are movable by the omnipotent will of Lord Krishna. As Shri Krishna appears Himself on the face of the earth without being lost at His original abode, so also He can make His Dhamas appear without any change in the original structure. Nobody should make a difference between the Dhamas on the earth with those in the spiritual sky. One should not think of these Dhamas as material while the original ones as spiritual. Both of them are spiritual. It is for us only who cannot experience anything beyond matter in the present conditional stage; so the Dhamas or the Lord in His Archa Form appear before us resembling matter in order to give us facility to see spirit with material eyes. In the beginning it may be difficult for the neophyte to understand this identical structure but in due course when one is advanced in the devotional service, it will be easier and tangible in form.
By the Grace of the Lord His Dhamas and He Himself can be presented all simultaneously without any change or deviation from one another with equal importance with of the original places. When one is fully developed in affection and love of Godhead, one can see only these Dhamas in their original appearance.
Srila Narottamdas Thakur a great Acharya in the preceptorial line of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has said for our benefit that we can see only perfectly the Dhamas, when we are completely give up the mentality of lording it over the material nature. Spiritual vision develops proportionately in the ratio of our giving up the debasing mentality to enjoy matter unnecessarily.
A diseased person, who might have developed his diseased condition by certain bad habit must be ready to follow the advice of the physician and make an attempt to give up the cause of the disease that is a natural sequence. The patient cannot indulge in the bad habit and at the same time expect to be cured by the physician.
Modern material civilization is an atmosphere of disease-making infection. The living being is a spiritual spark and he is as much spiritual as the Lord is Himself. The only difference is that the Lord is great and the living beings are small. Qualitatively they are one but quantitatively they are different. So the consitution being spiritual, the living being can be happy only in the spiritual sky where there are unlimited spiritual spheres called by the name of Vaikunthas. And a spiritual being conditioned by material body must therefore try to get rid of his diseased condition instead of developing the cause of the disease. Foolish persons, being too much engrossed by material assets, are unnecessarily proud of being leaders of the people ignoring the spiritual value of (?). Such illusioned leaders’ plan covering any number of years can hardly make the human kind happy in a conditional state of threefold miseries offered by the material nature. Nobody can control the laws of nature by any ammount of struggle for existence. At last one has to submit to the laws of nature by the ultimatum of death. This death is one of the symptoms of diseased condition along with others such as birth, old age and illness. And the highest aim of human perfection of life should be to go back to home to go back to Godhead.
In the Brahma Samhita, description of the abode of Krishna is given as follows:—Lord Brahma said “I do worship Govind the Primeval Lord Who is served by thousands of cowherd girls who are expansions of the Goddess of fortune, Who tends flocks of desire cows exactly in the way of a cowboy and who lives in the palaces of touch stones covered with lacs and crores of desire trees which can fulfill all desires of beggars.”
The above description of the abode of Krishna gives us definite information of the transcendental place where life is not only eternal, blissful and full of knowledge but there is ample milk, vegetables, jewels, beautiful houses, gardens administered by beautiful damsels who are all goddess of fortune.
This Krishna-loka sphere or planet is the topmost part in spiritual sky and below it there are innumerable Vaikuntha spheres description of which can be had from Srimad Bhagwat also. In the beginning of Lord Brahma’s self-realisation, He was shown by transcendental vision, the constitution of the Vaikuntha spheres by the Grace of Narayana. And later on by the Grace of Krishna He was shown through transcendental vision the constitution of Krishnaloka. This transcendental vision is achieved by penance and meditation within oneself as modern television is a system of etherial vibration recorded in suitable machine.
The Srimad Bhagwat (2nd canto) states as follows:—”In the Vaikuntha lokas there is no influence of material modes of nature such as the quality of goodness, passion or ignorance. In the material world the highest qualitative manifestation is goodness which is characterized by truthfulness, equiposition of the mind, cleanliness, controlling the senses, simplicity, essential knowledge, faith in God, scientific knowledge etc. But even though, all these good qualities are mixed up with passion and imperfectness. But there the qualities are manifestations of Gods’ internal potency and therefore such qualities are pure spiritual qualities without any trace material infection. There the qualities are all transcendental. And no material planets even up to the Satyaloka is comparable in quality of the spiritual planets. In other words ignorance, miseries, egoism, anger, enviousness all these five necessary qualifications of the material world are completely absent there. In the material world everything is a created thing. You can think of anything within your experience including your own body and mind, every thing is created Everything is produced in the field or factory. And this creation was begun from the life of Brahma. That means this creative principle is prevalent all over the material universe due to the quality of passion. But there in the Vaikuntha sphere, the quality of passion being conspicuous by its absence, nothing is created there. Everything there is eternally existant and because there is no modes of ignorance by which destruction and annihilation takes place, there is no question annihilation also. The quality of goodness in the material world is a method of attempt for making everything permanent by the above mentioned good qualities. But because such methods are not unmixed with passion and ignorance notwithstanding all attempts of goodness nothing exists here in the material world in spite of all good plans by the good scientific brain. Therefore we have no experience here of eternity, blissfulness and fullness of knowledge. But there, due to complete absence of the qualitative modes everything there is eternal blissful and cognisant. Everything can speak, everything can move, everything can hear and everything can see in full blissed existence for eternity. The situation being so it is natural that the influence of time and space is out of question there. The influence of time in forms of past, present and future is completely absent there. There is no change in the spiritual sky which is due to the influence of time. Consequently the influence of Maya or the total external energy which induces us to become more and more materialistic and forget our relation with God in still more dexterity is also absent there. As spiritual sparks of the beams emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord, we are all permanently related with Him and we are all equal in quality also with the Lord. This material energy is a sort of covering of that spiritual spark. And in the absence of such material coverings in the Vaikuntha loka, the living enties there are never forgetful of their identities and are cognisant of his relation with God. They are always in their constitutional position of rendering transcendental loving service to the Lord. And because they are constantly engaged in the transcendental service of the Lord it is naturally concluded that their senses are also transcendental, because nobody can serve the Lord with material senses They do not possess anything like the material senses ever ready to lord it over the material nature. Persons with poor fund of knowledge conclude that the place which is void of the material qualities, must be something like zero or voidness or without any variegatedness. But in reality the qualities are different only(?) spiritual. There are six transcendental qualities in the Vaikuntha instead of three in the matter. The extra qualities are that there everything is eternal, unlimited and pure. The atmosphere there is self-illuminating and as such there is no need of the Sun, the moon or fire electricity etc. And any one who can reach there do not come back again in the material world with material body. In the Vaikuntha the emigrants all being freed from the material qualities, there is no difference between the atheist and faithful (Ashuras,and Suras) all Suras and asuras equally become most obedient loving servitor of the Lord.
The residents of Vaikuntha are brilliantly blackish in color(?). Bright blackish color even in the material world is more fascinating and attractive than dull whitish colour. Dull whitish colour is a sort of white leprosy. Black color is not always repellent. Black hair is always adored everywhere. It is just an idea of the color of the residents of Vaikuntha. The body being spiritual, we have nothing to compare with them here in the material world. We can simply make an idea how beautiful is bright cloud when there is flash of lightning upon it. Generally they dress themselves in yellow clothings and the built of their bodies is delicate and beautiful. They are all nicely and attractively built. And the eyes are exactly like the petals of lotus flower.
The residents of Vaikuntha have four hands decorated with conchshell, wheel, club and lotus flower in the way as Lord Vishnu is decorated. Their chest is beautifully broad and full decorated with necklace of costly jewels which are not ever found in the material world And in the middle of the necklace there is a medal like brilliant diamond. Such residents of Vaikuntha are always powerful and full of ability(?).
Some of them are coloured like the red coral, cats eye and lotus flower and each and everyone one of them puts on ear-rings made of costly jewels. And on the head there is a (?) cap resembling a garland.
In the Vaikunthas, there are machineless airships without any rattling sound. The machine made airships are not at all safe. They can fall down at any time and crash. So matter is imperfect in every respect. In the spiritual sky the airships are also spiritual and all of them are spiritually brilliant and bright. When they fly in the spiritual sky, it increases the beauty of the occupants and the space also. Such spiritual airships are not used for carrying passengers with business brain or politicians of planning commissions nor do they carry any cargo in postal bags, these things are unknown there. Such airships are used for pleasure trip only and therefore the residents of Vaikuntha carry with them their respective heavenly beautiful fairy consorts. Therefore such airships full with the residents of Vaikuntha both male and female, increase the beauty of spiritual sky. We cannot imagine how beautiful they are but we can have an idea which may be compared with clouds in the sky accompanied by the silver linings of electricity lightning. The spiritual sky of Vaikuntha loka is always decorated in that way.
Full opulence of the internal potency of Godhead is resplendent always in the Vaikuntha loka. The Goddess of Fortune is ever-increasingly attached to serve the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead. Such Godesses of fortune overcrowded by their friends always make an agitation of transcendental mirth and nobody is silent for a moment even, without the singing sweetly of glories of the Lord.”
There are unlimited number of Vaikunthas in the spiritual sky and the ratio is that the manifestation of the Lord’s internal potency i.e. the spiritual sky is three times greater than that of the material sky made by the external energy.
Poor materialists are busy in making political adjustment in a place which is most insignificant in the creation of God. What to speak of this planet earth the whole universe with innumerable planets up and down is compared with a grain of mustard amongst the mustard packed in a bag. Such poor materialist make plans to live comfortably and thus waste the most valuable energy of human life in a thing which is never to be completed. Instead of wasting time in that plan making, a plain and simple life with high thinking of spiritual life would have saved the misguided human being from perpetual unrest which is a gift of matter.
Even if a materialist wants to enjoy developed material facilities, he can transfer himself to other many many material planets where he can experience more more advanced material pleasures. The plan of life is to prepare oneself for going back directly to the spiritual sky after leaving this body but yet if anyone wants to enjoy the largest amount of material facilities, one can transfer himself in the other planets, not by means of sputniks which are simply childish entertainments, but by advanced psychological effects and learning the art of transferring the soul by mystic powers. The yoga system is also materialistic in as much as it teaches to control the movement of air within the body. The spiritual spark, soul is floating on air within the body and breathing exhalations are the waves of that air containing the soul. Therefore ‘yoga’ system is a materialistic art of controlling such air which can be placed by practice of yoga from the stomach to the navel, from the navel to the heart, from the heart to chest, from the chest to collar bones, from the color bones to the eyeballs and from the eyeballs to the cerebellum. And from the cerebellum the expert yogi can convey his own soul to any planet he desires. The velocity of air or light is taken into consideration by the material scientist but they have no information of the velocity of still finer matter namely the mind and intelligence. We have some experience of the velocity of mind because in a moment we can transfer the mind to lacs and crores of miles away. Intelligence is still finer matter. Finer than intelligence is the soul, but soul is not matter but it is spirit and is crores and crores times finer and powerful than intelligence. We can thus make an imagination of the velocity of the soul and how quietly it can travel from one planet to another by its own strength, without any help of any sort(?) of finer material vehicle.
Animal civilization of eating, sleeping, fearing and sense-gratifying, has misled the modernized man and he has forgotten how powerful a soul he is. As we have already described that the soul is a spiritual spark which is many many times illuminating, dazzling and powerful than the sun, the moon or electricity—human life is spoiled by not realising his real identity. And Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu along with Nityananda wants to save them from this type of misleading civilization.
How the yogis can travel in all the planets of the universe is also described in the Bhagwat as follows:—
“When the vital force is thus lifted in the celebrum, there is every chance of this force being burst out of any one of the holes like the eyes, noses, ears as these are the places which are known as the seventh orbit of the vital force. The yogi therefore can block out these holes by complete suspension of passing air and carefully the yogi concentrate the vital force in the middle position or in between the eyebrows. At this position, they yogi can think in which of the planets he wants to go after leaving this body. He can decide either to go to the abode of Krishna, the Vaikunthas which are transcendental places from where nobody is required to come back again into the material world or at that if he desires not to go directly to the planets of the spiritual sky but he wants to have a travel over the higher planets in the universe, he is at liberty to do so in that position.
For a perfect yogi who has attained success in the system, to leave this material body in perfect consciousness—is as easy as an ordinary man in life time goes from one place to another or changes dress from garment to another. As already discussed the material body is just a covering of the spirit soul. Mind and intelligence is the undercover and the gross body made of earth water air etc is the over coating of the soul. As such any advanced soul who has realised himself by yogic process or the linking up process from matter to spirit—can leave the shirting and coatings of the soul in perfect order and as he desire. One has complete freedom by the Grace of God. The Lord is kind upon us that we can live any where either in the spiritual sky or in the material sky and in any planet fixed up there of. Misuse of this freedom makes him fall down in the material world and live a conditional life full with threefold miseries. To live a miserable life in the material world is a choice of the soul and not a chance. And from the material world also by his own choice he can go back to home back to Godhead.
So in that critical time of placing the vital force in between the two eye brows, he is to decide where he wants to go. If he is completely reluctant to keep any connection with the material world, he can do so and within less than a second he can reach the transcendental Vaikuntha and appear there completely in spiritual body just suitable to the spiritual atmosphere.
He has simply to desire to leave the material world both in finer and grosser form and then put on the vital force on the topmost part of the skull and leave this body from the hole of the skull called Brahmrandhra. That is the highest perfection of practicing yoga system.
But as he is endowed with the freedom of will and as such if he does not wish to get himself completely freed from the material world but wants to enjoy a life of Brahmapada(?) or to occupy the post of Brahma and to see the place of materially perfect beings called the Siddha loka where a living being has full control of controlling the gravity, space, time , overlordship, etc, then he has not got to leave the mind and intelligence (finer matter) but can simply give up the grosser matter and thus go up to the highest place of the material universe.
The sputniks or the so-called manmade planets made of mechanical arrangement will never be able to carry human being in the interplanetary outer space. Even they cannot go to the so much advertised moon. The reason is that in the higher planetary system the atmosphere is different from here. Each and every planet has its particular atmosphere and if anyone wants to go to any particular planet any where within the material universe, one has to get his material shirt and coat made up exactly suitable to the climatic condition of that planet. It is just like this. If a person wants to go from India to Europe where the climate is different from India, then one has to change his dress accordingly. Similarly to go into the heart of another planet requires a complete change of dress as much as we require to change the body when we want to go up to the transcendental planets of Vaikuntha.
The difference is that if we want to go to the highest material planet we need not change the finer dress of mind, intelligence and ego but we have to change the gross dress made of earth, water, fire, etc,
But when we go to the transcendental planets we require to change both the finer as well as grosser bodies and we have to reach in the spiritual sky completely in spiritual form.
The change of dress will automatically take place simply by desiring at the time of leaving the body. This fact is corroborated in the Bhagwat Geeta also that one can have his next material body as he desires at the time of leaving the present body. The desire of mind carries the soul in suitable(?) atmosphere as the air carries a smell by air blowing (?) particular area. Unfortunately those who are not yogis, those who are gross materialists and have indulged in sense-gratification all throughout the living period—becomes puzzled by disarrangement of the bodily and mental condition at the time of death. As such the gross sensualists become encumbered with so many ideas and desires mostly in the matter in which he has led his life throughout or the association he has made and thus he desires something which is against his interest and thus takes up foolishly the next body to perpetuate the same material miseries. It requires therefore training of the mind and intelligence by systematic habits just to remain conscious at the time of death and desire his next suitable body either in this planet or in any other planet or even up to the transcendental planet. A civilization which is not based on this progressive advancement of the immortal soul—is an animal life of ignorance. It is foolish to therefore to think every passing soul is going to the same place. The soul must pass over to a place where he desires to go at the time of death or leaving the body, or he is forced to accept position according to his acts in the previous life.
Therefore the conscious yogi can have his suitable body to enjoy in the higher planets. That makes the difference between a materialist and a yogi. The gross materialist is constantly after sense-gratification. The whole span of his life is engaged in the matter of earning livelihood and maintaining the family at day time. And at night to spend up the energy in the matter of sex-enjoyment and then have a distressed condition of sleep thinking all that he has done in the day time. That is the monotonous life of the materialist. They are differently graded as business men, lawyers, litigants, politicians, professors, judges, coolies, thieves(?), pickpockets, laborers etc. and all these materialists are simply engaged in the matter of eating, sleeping, fearing and sense gratifying are spoiling the valuable life in unnecessary things against the interest of his perfection of life, by spiritual realization.
The yogis only try to make a perfection of life and therefore in the Bhagwat Geeta it is advised that every one should become a yogi. The yoga is the system of (?) linking up the soul in the service of the Lord and under superior guidance only one can practice such yoga from any platform of life, without any change of social position.
The yogis can go any where and every where he desires without the help of so-called rockets. As already described the yogis can place their mind and intelligence within the encircling air passing inside the body and by practising that art of the body he can mix up that air with that of outside the body, which is blowing all over the universe. So with the help of universal air only the yogis can pass over to any planet and get his body there just suiting the particular atmosphere. We can have a glimpse over the idea by the modern manipulation of electronics or wireless radio messages. Sound waves produced at a certain station rolls round the earth sometimes(?) within a second. Sound is produced from ether or sky. As already explained subtler than the ethereal sky is the mind and finer than mind is intelligence. Spirit is still more finer than intelligence and by nature it is completely different from matter. As such we can imagine only how quickly the spirit soul can drive its motion through the passing of universal airy ways.
The conclusion is that to come to the stage of manipulating such finer things like mind, intelligence and spirit, it requires different training, different mode of life, different association etc. Such training depends on sincere prayers, devotional services, achieving success in the mystic perfection and successfully merging oneself into the business of the Soul and the Super-soul. The gross materialists, may he be an empiric philosopher, a scientists or a psychologist still he can not attain this success of life by their blunt effort and juggling maneuvers.
Materialists who perform yajnas or great sacrifices are comparatively better than the grosser type of materialist who does not know anything beyond laboratory and test tubes. Such sacrificing materialist can reach to the planet of ‘Vaishyanara’ or the fiery planet similar to the Sun. This planet is situated on the way to Brahmaloka the topmost planet in the universe. In that Vaishyanara planet, such advanced materialists can get themselves rid from all traces of vices and their reactive effects. When such materialist is thus purified, he can rise up to the orbit of the Pole-star (Dhrubaloka) and the orbit is called Sishumara Chakra a circle within which the planet of Vaikuntha within this universe is situated. Within this orbit of Dhrubaloka, Vishnuloka or Vaikuntha and Adityalokas are stationed. A purified materialist who has performed many sacrifices has undergone severe penances and has had given in charities the major portion of one’s wealth can reach up to these planets up to Dhrubaloka or the Polestar. And if he is more qualified there, he can then penetrate into still higher orbits and pass through the navel of the universe and reach the planet like Maharloka where sages like Bhrgu and others live.
In the Maharloka one can live even at time of partial annihilation of the universe. The annihilation begins with volcanic flames of fire emanating from the mouth of Shesha Ananta Deva from the lowest portion of the universe. By such big blazing fire, the heat reaches up to Maharloka and the residents thereof pass to Brahmaloka which exists up to twice the duration of parardha(?) time. In the Brahmaloka also there are unlimited number of airships controlled not by yantra (machine) but by Mantra (psychic action) In the Brahmaloka, due to the existence of the mind and intelligence one has the feelings of happiness and distress otherwise there is no cause of lamentation, old age, death , fear and distress. The residents there while going to the Vaikuntha, do not leave the material body by death but they can transform their subtler bodies into spiritual body and thus enter into the spiritual sky. But due to the existent psychic condition such residents feel sympathetically for the suffering living beings who are put into the fire during annihilation.
The residents of Brahmaloka can enter into the spiritual sky in three different ways. Virtuous persons who by dint of their pious work only reach Brahmaloka—de(?) become masters of various planets after the resurrection of Brahma. And those who have had worshipped the Garvodo Shayee Vishnu, such residents are liberated along with Brahma. And those who are pure devotees of the Personality of Godhead, such persons do at once enter in to the spiritual sky pushing through the coverings of universe.
The bundle of numberless universes is a foamlike crystalisation and not each and every one of them is surrounded by the causal ocean water. therefore to penetrate into the side lines of the Brahmandas or universes are described as follows:—
“The material nature when agitated by the glance of Karanashayee Vishnu, the foamlike total elements are produced. The elements are eight in total and as such separate elements gradually evolve from finer form of egoism, part of which is the sky, part of which is the air, part of which is fire, part of which is the water and part of which is the earth. In this way one universe is pumped (? ) to the area of 50,00,00,000 x 8 = 200,00,00,000 miles diameter. The yogi desirous of gradual liberation, has to penetrate all the different coverings of the universe namely the covering of earth, water etc up to the eighth status of terminating the then qualitative material nature. And any body who reaches to this status does not any more come back in this mortal world.
According to Goswami Sukhdeva the above description of the material and spiritual sky is not imaginary or utopian. The actual facts recorded in the Vedic hymns. And all these were disclosed to Brahma by Vasudeva on being satisfied upon him (vide—
Perfection of life can be achieved only when we have some definite ideas. These definite ideas of Vaikuntha and that of Godhead should always be thought over and described. This recommended both in the Bhagwat Geeta as well as in the Bhagwat Purana the two authorised commentations of the Vedas. Lord Chaitanya made the things easier for acceptance by the fallen people of this age and Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita is therefore presented for easy understanding(?) of all concerned.
So again coming to the description of the abode of Krishna divided into three, the author of Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita says that in the compartments of Mathura and Dwarka Lord Krishna expands Himself in His Form of Vasudeva-Samkarshan-Pradyumna-Aniruddha or the the primeval quadruforms and displays His different pastimes there. This original quadruform is the fountain source of all other spiritual quadruforms.
Lord Krishna is always pastimeous in the three compartments of the Abode of Krishna namely Gokula, Mathura and Dwarka. And the Vaikuntha planets of the spiritual sky the Lord expands Himself as Narayana with four hands as the residents are there.
In his primeval Form Shri Krishna is always with two hands. In the spiritual sky, the Lord engages several potential energies called by the names of Shri, Bhoo, and Nila where He enjoys in His four handed forms. In the Ramanuja sect of Vaishnavas as well as the Madhya sect also, there is a great lot of description of these Shri, Bhu, Nila energies.
In Bengal, this Nila energy is sometimes read as Leela energy. These three energies are employed in the service fourhanded Narayana in the Vaikuntha. ‘Prapanna mrita’ of the Shri Sampraday gives a description of the Alvars, out of them three Alvar namely Bhutayogi, Sarayogi, and Bhrantayogi saw Narayana in Person when the took shelter at the house of a Brahmin in the village of Gehali. Narayan is described there as follows:—
Laxmidharam bakshasi pankajaksham.
Parsadwaye shovita bhumi neelam.
There is reference of these Bhu, Neela, energies in the ‘Svetopanishad’ as follows:—
“Mahashakti or the Supreme Energy of the Lord is experienced in different ways. They are divided into material and spiritual potencies. And both the features, she acts as the willing energy, executing energy and internal energy. The willing energy is again subdivided into three namely Shri-Bhu and Neela.
In the Madhya sect also these three energies are recognized as follows: Madhyacharya has quoted from revealed scriptures as follows in connection with his commentation of the Bhagwat Geeta (4th chapter). “The material nature or mother material nature is conceived in three divisions namely Shri, Bhu Neela etc. She is also conceived as the illusory energy, Durga, as such energies are creative energies of the Lord Vishnu. She is illusory energy for those who are weak in spiritual strength. Such energies known as Shri Bhu Neela or Durga etc all are in relation with Lord Vishnu. Although such energies have no direct relation with the unlimited, yet they are subordinate to the Lord. The Lord being Master of all energies.
In his Bhagwat Sandarbha Thesis, Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhu states “In the Padmapuranam there is reference of the eternal abode of Godhead which is full of auspicity and full of all opulences including the energy of Sree Bhu Neel.. In the Mahasamhita also in which the transcendental name and form of the Personality of Godhead has been discussed, there is also mention of Durga as the potency of the Super Soul in relation with the living entities. Internal potency is in relation with His Personal affairs and material potency is manifestive in three modes. In another place he quotes from the revealed scriptures that Shree is the energy of Godhead which maintains the cosmic creation. Bhu is the creative energy of that cosmic manifestation and Neela or Durga is the energy that destroys the creative energy. But all these energies are in relation with living beings and as such combined together they are called Jiva Maya.”
So much so for the energies of Shree, Bhu, Neela. All these energies of the Personality of Godhead are employed compassionately for bringing living entities back to Godhead under different actions. There are two kinds of liberated souls. One of them is liberated by the favour of the Lord and the other gets liberation by his own effort. one who gets liberation by his own effort are called impersonalists and he merges into the glowing effulgence of the Lord called Brahmajyoti. But the devotees of the Lord who qualify themselves for liberation by devotional services, are offered four kinds of liberation namely equal-status with Lord, constant association of the Lord, equally opulent with the Lord and with equal bodily features of the Lord. The impersonalists cannot enter into the Vaikuntha spheres of the spiritual sky but they remain as minute sparks of the Brahma Jyoti outside the Vaikuntha spheres
As explained herein before Vaikuntha means the spiritual sky wherein the ‘Abode of Krishna’ is situated. The Vaikunthas combined together is called Parabyoma and just outside the Parabyoma there is glowing effulgence of Krishna’s bodily rays which is called Brahmajyoti. That transcendental situation is called Siddhaloka Brahmaloka. The impersonalists merge into that Brahmaloka effulgence which is called impersonal liberation. This transcendental place is spiritual undoubtedly but there is no manifestation of spiritual activities or variegatedness. It is compared with the Sun dial which is fiery glow only to the outside onlookers but in fact within that glow there is the Kingdom of Sun where all sorts variegatedness of the fiery globe can be experienced by those who are enabled to enter into the Sun-Globe. Brahmadham is compared with the Sun-glow only.
So there are two varieties of liberated souls namely the Personalists and Impersonalists. So far Personalists are their liberation is made possible by different and direct or indirect devotional activities. This is explained in the Srimad Bhagwatam as follows:—(7.1.21)
“Exactly in the way of devotional services when one’s mind is attracted by the All-attractive Personality of Godhead either in the mode of lust or out of fear or out of animosity, the attracted person thus become freed from the impurities of such state of mind and becomes liberated”
As the powerful sun can purify, by its glowing rays, all kinds of impurities of filthy matter, similarly the all spirit Personality of Godhead can purify all material qualities in the person of the attracted. Even if one is attracted by Godhead in the mode of material lust, such attraction is converted into spiritual love of Godhead by His Grace. Similarly if one is affimated(?) by fear or animosity, he also becomes purified by the spiritual attraction of the Lord. The thing is that the Lord and the living being both are spiritual identities. God is great and the living entity is small. But both of them being individual persons, it requires an exchange of free will for reciprocal attraction. As soon as this exchange of free will takes place the great spiritual Being at once attracts the small making him free from all material bondage.
This is more clearly explained in the Bhakti Rasamrita Sindhu by Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhu. He says “Whenever there is a statement of common goal both for the enemies and servitors of the Lord, it should be noted carefully that common goal is to be understood in the spiritual identification of Krishna and His glowing effulgence known by impersonal Brahman. It is similar to the sun-dial and the sunglow. The purport is that the Personalist devotee enters into the spheres of Vaikuntha whereas the impersonalist enters into the Brahmaloka both of which are in the spiritual sky.
And still more clearly is explained in the Loghu Bhagabatamritam by Srila Rupa Goswami as follows:—
“In the Vishnupurana a question was put up by Maitreya to Parasara as to how Shisupala merged into the body of Shri Krishna although he could not do so in his previous births as Hiranya Kashipu and Ravana even though he was made to enjoy opulences more esteemable than those enjoyed by the denizens of heaven. Shri Parasara replied to this as follows: ‘When Nrisingha Deva appeared before the demoniac King Hiranya Kashipu, the latter could not recognize the Lord as such but he took Him up as some powerful living being in the shape of man and lion combined. Neither he could think of that Form of Godhead being infuriated by the modes of passion. But only because he was touched by the Lord while being killed—in his next birth he obtained the body of Ravana a powerful demoniac King who was master of all interplanetary Kingdoms. For this reason only although he met personally the Personality of Godhead he was unable to obtain liberation on account of his mind being deluded from(?) Godhead. And again in that body Ravana, he became attracted to Sita in the mode of lust. When he therefore met the Personality of Godhead face to face, he could not recognize Him as the Supreme Lord but he took Him to be a powerful man only. So again he was killed by the hand of Godhead and for this reason only the same soul of Hiranyakashipu became a powerful King in the body of Shisupala As descendant of the King of Cheedi he inherited immense property and Kingdom. In this birth he was able to recognize Vasudeva Krishna as the Personality of Godhead but on account of his enviousness upon Godhead for many many births, he was unable to eradicate the feeling of animosity upon the Lord. He knew that the Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord but being accustomed to speak ill of Him, he used to call Him ill names always and consequently he was able to think of the Personality of Godhead in the mode of animosity. As a result of this he could not live without thinking of Krishna in all activities of his life namely while eating sleeping travelling sitting and thinking(?) etc. In fact he was always compact in thought of Krishna’s beautiful Form. When he used to call Him by ill names at that time also he was absorbed in thought of Krishna. So up to the time of his death, he was able to chant the name of Krishna as well as think of Krishna in the mode of animosity and therefore at the last moment he was favored to see the Sudarshan Chakra and in the rays of it he could realize the Brahmajyoti of the Personality of Godhead. This indirect realization (even though it was made possible in the inimical ways) made him liberated from all material impurities at once and being killed by the Sudarshan Chakra, he merged into the body of the Lord.” That was the reply of Parasara to Maitreya.
It is to be judged here what may be the destination of the devotees. If a soul just in the mode of animosity like Shisupala can merge into the Form of the Lord, then pure devotees who always in loving service of the Lord, must enter into the eternal transcendental service of the Lord. There is no doubt about it.
Formerly the two demoniac Kings namely Hiranakhya and Hiranyakashipu both were associates of the Lord in Vaikuntha. And Shri Parasar said that both of them took their births in the material world thrice consequitively. Their former names in the Vaikuntha, were Joy and Vijoy. Parasar Muni did not utter their names but simply informed that they took their births thrice. This fact definitely indicates that the associates of the Lord do not, always and in all the milleniums, appear. It is inconceivable therefore that the associates of the Lord are degraded at times. The fact is that the Personality of Godhead possesses by His transcendental willing energy, all properties which we see partially represented in material activities.
Exactly like His willingness for creation He possesses His willingness to fight also. Like a King with a sportmanlike spirit who creates his own competitor and enjoys himself with such mock-fighter or in the absence of such wrestler he engages some one of his personal staff to take the part of opposite party, similarly the Personality of Godhead creates His opposite party selected from the members of His associates or from the group of godless creatures and the Lord satisfies his fighting propensities in that way. In the Kingdom of Godhead or Vaikuntha there is no scope for such fighting exhibition although the fighting propensity exists in Lord. When the King desires for hunting, he has to go to the forest where ferocious animals live. The forest is within the jurisdiction of the Kings own dominion. Similarly when the Lord desires fighting, He descends in the material world both for satisfying His fighting propensities as well as to kill the godless creatures. The material world is also within the jurisdiction of Lord’s creation but it is different from His own abode. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is confirmed that all cosmic manifestations rest on His potencies but not all of them are identical with His own abode. The conclusion is therefore that the fighting propensities of the Lord is satisfied as soon as He desires and it is not necessary that for such mock fighting He requires the services of His eternal associates. He can create the situation by His willing energy anywhere and everywhere.
Now again coming to the point of Hiranyakashipu’s not becoming liberated even though he was killed by the Lord, Srila Jiva Goswami puts his arguments as follows:—
“Hiranyakashipu could not recognize the Form of Lord Nrisingha Deva as the incarnation of Vishnu. He mistook the Lord as some extraordinary living being in the Form of half-lion and half-man. He was too much influenced by the mode of passion on account of his being defeated by peculiar Form of the Lord and as such it was a puzzle for Hiranyakashipu to think of the Lord at the last moment of his life. Therefore in His next birth he became a great powerful King like Ravan with all opulences in defiance of the same possessed by the king of heaven. Absorption in the transcendental sense of Vishnu does not take place for want of sufficient knowledge in theism as well as for want of sufficient enmity with the Personality of Godhead. If one is cognisant that his enemy is the Personality of Godhead then that sort of cognitional faculty helps him more to liberation than impersonal vague idea of the Absolute Truth. The thing required is complete absorption. One cannot attain to such stage of absorption by impersonal way of thinking. Personal thinking, even in the status of an enemy, causes absorption more easily than im(?) thinking. This fact is corroborated in the Bhagwat Geeta also that impersonal way of attraction is more painful than personal way of attraction—although the Supreme Truth is both Personal and impersonal. By absorption only one can be freed from all material infection and that means liberation. on account of such paucity(?) of absorption of Hiranyakashipu, he was not liberated from material bondage even though the Lord was present before his eyes. Unless we have therefore perfection of knowledge about the Lord’s Name, Fame, Form, Qualities etc.—we cannot see God even if He is present before us.
The self-same soul of Hiranyakashipu when became manifested as Ravana, at that time also Ravana being too much influenced by lust, he thought the Personality of Godhead Sri Rama as an ordinary man. And for this reason, although he saw the Supreme Person and was killed by Him, Ravana after changing his body became the King of Chedi and was known as Shishupala. In this body of Shisupala, he was cognisant of Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and he knew it also that in his two previous births he was killed by the Personality of Godhead. This fact of his being twice killed by Personality of Godhead made more enemical towards Krishna. The enmity was so tense and acute that Shisupala remained always absorbed in the thought of Krishna and indirectly he was benefitted for uttering the holy name of Krishna. As a result of this chanting of Lord Krishna’s name, King Shisupala was able to visualise the four-handed Form of Godhead, Shri Vishnu and he recognized Him as the Supreme Lord. On account of such absorption into Krishna for constantly thinking and singing about Him (even though such psychic actions were unfavourably done) he (Sishupala) became totally freed from material infections and his demoniac tendency being completely removed(?), he was able to see Brahmajyoti from the Sudarshan wheel flung by the Lord and got salvation being merged into the body of the Lord. Special instruction of this statement is to be understood in the fact that the Primeval Lord, even if He is thought of in absorption constantly in the mode of animosity—gives salvation to His enemy and what to speak for His servitors constantly engaged in transcendental loving service. There are instances also in that way, namely salvation was given to Putana who came to kill the Lord by poisoning the her breast. And so was given to Kalnemi who was maternal uncle of Ravana.
Srila Sanatan Goswami therefore discriminates sharply between merging into the spiritual existence (salvation) and loving transcendental service of the Lord. He says that the demoniac kings and enimical demons who are accused in the revealed scripture for having assassinated and killed Brahmanas and cows respectively such as Kamsa and others obtained salvation by merging in the Absolute. Such salvation of merging into one can not be too much esteemed. And who are these fellows? They are stubborn enemies of the Lord. And what are the devotees? They are all fully surrendered souls, ready to sacrifice everything for the Lord’s satisfaction. They are all saintly persons. As there is a gulf of difference between vice and piety, so there is difference between the activities of the devotees and that of the demons. Both of them cannot be equal neither the ultimate goal of both of them is equal. The demons are born to envy the devotees and to kill the pious men and cows and as such their ultimate goal is salvation by merging into one with the identity of the Absolute. But for the devotees, who are born to render loving service to the Lord the result of such service is gradual development of love of Godhead in greater and greater degrees. As such those who are desirous of salvation by merging into the Absolute, must be addicted to empiric speculation only as the means of salvation without being attracted by the transcendental loving service of the Lord.
Therefore within the spiritual sky of Vaikunthas there are immense spiritual variegatedness and monotonous glowing effulgence of Brahmajyoti is illuminated out of the Vaikuntha spheres. In such glowing effulgence only the salvationists, who desire oneness with Absolute, can merge into it. In the Brahmanda Puranam description of such abode of Salvationists, is given as follows:—
“After the cosmic manifestation of the material world there is a place called ‘Siddhaloka’ in the transcendental sky. In that place saints and salvationists, who desire only transcendental knowledge, live along with those enemies of the Lord like Kamsa and other demons who are killed by the Lord.
Within the spiritual sky, there is the 2nd manifestation of the quadruform of Dwarka in abode of Krishna. This quadruform is known as the 2nd quadruform which is also all spiritual and immune from all material modes. Here in the 2nd quadruform Shri Valadeva is represented as Maha Samkarshan. In the spiritual sky, actions of internal potency is manifested there as is known as Pure Spiritual Existence. This pure spiritual existence expands the transcendental six opulences and all such opulences due to Mahasamkarshan as above mentioned. Mahasamkarshan is the ultimate rest of all living entities. He is the objective summumbonum of all living entities. Spiritual sparks, known as living entities although belong to the marginal potency known as Jiva Shakti—are subjected to the conditions of material energy. Therefore the spiritual sparks having been interrelated both with internal and external potencies of the Lord are known as belonging to the marginal potency.
Regarding this quadruforms of the Absolute Personality of Godhead namely Vasudeva, Sankarshan, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, the impersonalists, headed by Sripad Shankaracharya, have interpreted the the aphoristic rules of ‘Vedanta Sutra’ in a way suitable to the impersonalist school. But in order to prove the intrinstic import of such aphorism, Srila Sanatan Goswami the leader of the six Goswamins at Vrindaban has properly replied, the impersonalists in his Brihat Bhagwatamritam by quoting authorized statements from Srimad Bhagwatam which is the natural commentation of the aphorisms of Vedanta Sutras.
Srila Rupa Goswami has also quoted at statement from Padma Puranam about this quadruforms in his Laghu Bhagwatamritam as follows:—
“In the Padma Puranam it has been definitely stated that on the four sides of the spiritual sky there is four different transcendental abodes occupied by Vasudeva, Samkarshan, Pradyumna and Aniruddha respectively. So also in the material sky also they are similarly placed on all the four sides. The Vaikuntha sphere which is covered with spiritual water is inhabited by Vasudeva and this Vaikuntha is known as Devavatipur. Above the Satyaloka there is Vishnuloka where Sankarshan resides. Pradyumna resides at Dwarkapura and in the middle of the ocean of milk there is an island called by the name Swetadwipa which is resided by Aniruddha lying on the bed of Ananta.
Srila Kaviraj Goswami the author of Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita has herein discussed the irrelevancy of Sripad Shankaracharya’s objection to the Personal features of the Absolute Truth in pursuance of his own interpretations on the Aphorism No 42 in the 2nd chapter of Vedanta Sutra.
The Aphorism runs as follows: Utpattyasamkha(?) and Sripad Shankaracharya interprets the same as follows
“If such emanations are accepted then the (?) of non-eternity to all these deities has to be (?). If it is accepted that Samkarsana Who is the embodiment of the living beings has emanated from Vasudeva, then Samkarsana or others cannot be immune from the flaw of non-eternity. If the living entities are accepted as non-eternal, then there is no question of salvation for them even by approaching the Personality of Godhead. The cause being transcient the effects cannot be permanent. Shri Acharya Vedavyasa has already refuted this conception non-eternity element of the living being by his aphorism in the 2nd chapter reading as “Natmasruter nityatwatchatavaja By forbidding this conception of non-eternity of the living being, the imagination of the Bhagwats, that one is born out of the other, cannot be accepted.”
There are other aphorisms in the Vedanta which forbids this sort of imagination as in the ordinary course of our life we do not find that a subject is the cause of instrument. And in spite of this, the Bhagwats describe without reason that from the subjective Sankarsan, instrumental mind of the name Pradyumna has come into being and subsequently from that instrumental mind egoism of the name Aniruddhas has also come into being. The Bhagwat school cannot cite any convincing example for this with which how can we accept their statements. There is supporter vedic tradition for this sort of conviction.
“It may be the object of the Bhagwats that they do not mean such expansions of Vasudeva exactly in the category of the living being. As such all of them are full in six kinds of opulences namely knowledge strength, influence, energy and free from all material infections eternally existent. As such they are transcendental to the flaw of beginning. Even though they may have such intention is the case of the quadruforms, yet the flaw of beginning cannot be rejected altogether from them. Vasudeva, Samkarsan, Pradyumna and Aniruddha all of them different Personalities—they are not one; but they are all equally identified as Iswara or the Supreme Lord. If this statement is accepted then we agree to accept more than one God which is absurd. There is no necessity of accepting more than one God, because acceptance one omnipotent God is sufficient for all purposes. By such acceptance of more than one God is contradictory to the conclusion that Lord Vasudeva The Absolute Personality of Godhead is one without a second. Even if we agree to accept that the quadruforms of Godhead are all identical, yet we cannot avoid the incongruency of the flaw of non-eternity and without beginning. Because acceptance of quadruforms automatically suggests some specific difference between such expansiveness. There must be some sort of difference of function or forms(?) between Vasudeva, Aniruddha etc unless there is some difference between the cause and effect it is difficult to decide what is the cause and what is the effect. Just like there is some specific difference between the earth and earthen pot and as such we can ascertain that earth is the cause and earthen pot is the effect. Besides that the Bhagwat class does not make any difference between the persons of the quadruforms as far as their knowledge etc is concerned. They do not make any qualitative difference. As such should we conclude that expansion of Godhead is restricted only in four? Certainly we cannot do so. Beginning from Brahma down to the insignificant ant each and everyone of them are all expansions of Vasudeva and it is accepted by all revealed scriptures such as the Vedas and Vedic literatures.
“We can see in the scriptures of the Bhagwat school like the Pancharatra, that there are many contradictory conceptions like quality and the qualified. It is said there that God is Himself the quality and He is Himself the qualified. How this is possible to think that the same person is Himself the quality and the qualified. This is impossible to think. The Bhagwats say that knowledge, opulence, strength, influence, beauty, potency etc. all of the qualities and the Personalities of Godhead such as Pradyumna etc are the Supreme Soul identical with Lord Vasudeva.
Srila Rupa Goswami in his Laghu Bhagbatamritam (in connection with the description of quadruforms) has definitely replied to all these charges and Sripad Shankaracharya the head of the Mayavada school.
“There are in the four corners of the spiritual sky four quadruforms which are well known as ‘Mahabastha’ of which Vasudeva is the original quadruform and He is meditated upon within the heart (Bhag. 4.3.23) Shri Sankarsan is His plenary portion to fulfil His transcendental desires. Sankarsan is the 2nd quadruform and is the origin of all living beings. He is therefore called the collective living being. His bodily beauty is more fascinating than the combined resplendent beauty of innumerable full moon’s rays. He is worshipped also as the principle of ego. He has delegated His power unto Shri Anantadeva and as the Super soul of Smararati(?) Rudra and Satan. It is He who annihilates the existence of cosmos as the Supersoul of Ahi, Antak and other Demons. Third manifestation of that quadruform is Pradyumna. Intelligentia do worship Him in its activities of intellect. The Goddess of fortune is always serving Him by recitation of His transcendental qualities in the region of Ilabati Varsha. His bodily glares are sometimes resplendent like gold and sometimes as bluish monsoon clouds. He is the ingredients for cosmic creation and He delegated His power of generation unto the Cupid. By His direction only all materialistic gods and men, the creator, the Prajapatis, and other living entities do function the regenerating energy. His plenary portion is Aniruddha. Great thinkers and philosophers do worship this form of Aniruddha of the quadruform. His bodily glare resembles like the bluish monsoon cloud. He maintains the existence of cosmic creation as the Super-soul director of Dharma, Manu, Devas. He is always busy in the maintenance of cosmos. In the Moksha dharma vedic scripture, Pradyumna is the superintending deity of the total mind whereas Aniruddha is so of the total egoism. All these statements are confirmed in the Pancharatra Tantras.
So far the pastimeous functions and inconceivable energy of the Supreme Lord is concerned—it is described in the Laghu Bhagwatamrita.
In the Mahabarahapuranam it is said also that all the Forms of the Lord are transcendental eternal and each and everyone of them descend on the earth repeatedly. All such Forms are immune from the perishable material ingredients and therefore none of them are created by the material energy. All them being thus transcendental, they are all spiritual full of bliss and knowledge without any tinge of infective matter.
The same thing is confirmed in the Narada Pancha ratra also it is said that the Lord displays His multi varieties of Personal features exactly in the manner of Vaidurya Gem which reflects different color in different angular vision.
As such somebody may take objection to the above descriptions of the quadruforms. Such critics want to finish the matter at one stroke. But in reply we can say that the Supreme Lord being endowed with inconceivable energy it is quite befitting for Him that He can exhibit Himself simultaneously as one, different, plenaries, and so on as nothing is impossible for Him the omnipotent. So far He manifested Himself simultaneously in numberless forms, it is confirmed by Shri Narada in the 10th Canto of Bhagwatam as follows:—He said—”It is wonderful indeed that Lord Krishna, although He is one without a Second has assumed simultaneously—in sixteen thousand plenaries and has married sixteen thousand queens at once” In the Padmapuranam it is said that the Supreme Lord Hari, although He is transcendental immune and the Primeval Lord, yet He assumes multiforms simultaneously and again lies down in one Form.”
In the 10th canto of Bhagwatam it is said “Oh my Lord although you manifest your self in varieties of forms, yet you are one without a Second. As such pure devotees concentrate upon you only and worship you.”
And the Kurmapuranam also it is said “The Lord is Personal although impersonal, the Lord is atomic although He is Great, He is blackish although He is colorless and His eyeballs are reddish too.”
All these contradictory elements are possible to be adjusted on account of His all spiritual omnipotential energy. Spirit moves the matter. In our material existence we can know of spirit only in that way. Spirit minus the matter makes it dead stop. Photograph of matter is as much dead as the matter. But photographic expansions of the all Spirit are as much live as the original Form. Inconceivable Spiritual activities and forms can be understood partially in that manner. The matter becomes clearer with the advance of spiritual realization and proportionate elimination of material illusion. In our present condition, because we cannot understand what are the spiritual activities and how do they work—it does not mean that we shall discard completely such contradictory conceptions inconceivable in the material set up. It is quite possible in the Absolute to coincide all opposing elements although they are apparently inconceivable.
In the sixth canto prose section of the Bhagwat, there is description of such contradictory activities in the spiritual realm. It is said like this “Oh my Lord your transcendental pastimes, enjoyments and activities all appear to be inconceivable because there is no limit of cause and effective actions of material thought. You are completely independant of any extraneous help as you are self-sufficient without any shelter, without any bodily function. Although you are transcendental to all modes of matter, you create this cosmos by your own energy, maintain it and annihilate it in due course. And all these activities have no reaction upon you. Oh my Lord is it that you accept all sorts of material happiness and miseries enforced upon you by the demigods and are you dependant upon them like the living beings either in the shape of god or demon? or do you stay steady as the transcendence unaffected by all such actions and remain self content Super soul to witness such actions? It is difficult for us to know. We think that for the Supreme Lord, Who is fully equipped with six kinds of opulences, whose unlimited energy is immeasureable by any other being, Who is the Lord over all other living entities, Whose glories are indescribable by any one else, Who is never touched by the empiricists who are bewildered by the different processes of philosophical approach and covered by mental speculative habits in the shape of imagination, logic, hypothesis, premises, conclusions and such other attempts to understand a subject—is always competent to coincide all opposing elements by His inconceivable potencies. What is impossible for you Who is always transcendence to all material qualities and knowledge? Your impersonal and personal features transcendence and nonqualitativeness, these are not your dual (?) faces but they are so and so in pursuance of one’s mode of approach. But for those who cannot think of beyond the matter like the snake, only to them only the material rope appears differently in the shape of serpent. Similarly those who are not fixed up in you or in other words those who are uncertain about you, for them only you create different philosophical methods in pursuance of their uncertain position.”
We should always remember the difference between spiritual and material actions. The Supreme Lord being all spiritual He can perform any act without any extraneous help from outside. In the material world if want to manufacture an earthen pot certainly we require the ingredients, the machine and the laborer also. We should not carry this idea to the actions of the Supreme Lord. He can create anything at any moment without any ingredient machine or laborer as we have our own conception. That is the difference between spirit and matter. When the Lord appears Himself as incarnation to execute some purpose it does not mean that He is unable to do such thing without such appearance. He can execute anything out of His will but He appears as dependant on his devotees out of His causeless mercy. He appears as the Son of Yasoda devi not that He is dependant on the care of Yasodadevi but out of His causeless mercy only He accepts such loving subordinate position. When He appears for the protection of His devotees, He naturally accepts sorrows and tribulations on behalf of His devotees. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is said that the Lord is equally disposed to every living being. Nobody is His enemy and nobody is His friend. But a devotee who always thinks of the Lord in love, the Lord is particularly leaned towards Him. Therefore, neutrality and partiality both are there in the transcendental qualities of the Lord and they are properly adjusted by His inconceivable energy.
The Lord is Param Brahman or the source of impersonal Brahman. As impersonal Brahman He is all pervading and that is His feature of neutrality. But in His personal feature as the owner of all transcendental opulences, He displays His Personality by accepting the side of His devotee. Partiality neutrality and all such qualities are there in God otherwise such qualities would not have been experienced in creation. The things are there in Him as total existence and they are properly adjusted in the Absolute. In the relative world such qualities are displayed in a perverted manner and therefore we experience a sense of duality by perverted reflection. There is no logic how such things happen in the all spirit. It is for this reason only He is described sometimes as beyond the range of experience. If we therefore accept only the inconceivability in Him, we can then adjust all these in Him. Such inconceivability of Lord’s energy is unthinkable by the nondevotee-class of men. For them only it is said that He is beyond the range of conceivable expression.
In the Vedanta Sutras it is also said that inconceivability of Lord’s energy can received only by aural reception and there is no other alternative for this knowledge. In the Skandha Purana also it is said that we may not apply our energy of logic in matters of transcendence. We can experience some extraordinary powers in material things also such as the stones and medical herbs. Such stones and herbs do exert their power and yet they remain without any loss of potency. These are material wonders and we can just imagine how much wonders there are in the All spirit Supreme Being. We can not think of the all powerful Supreme Being without adducing in Him the inconceivable potencies. And because He is endowed with such inconceivable energies, we are inclined to glorify Him in so many words of reverence. Ignorance as well as magical feats are very common in the material world. Such ignorance and material juggleries cannot be the qualifications of the Supreme Lord. If ignorance and magical feats are adduced to the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Lord, then the import of omnipotency of the Lord has no significance. Therefore two contradictory terms such as the quality of maintaining the cosmos as well as to become indifferent to its various aspects of existence, these opposite views are justly applicable to the transcendence both on the evidence of the revealed scriptures as well as by sound reasons also. Those, who are too much materially inclined and cannot think of beyond the range of material aspect, are as much bewildered in the presence of a rope and mistake it as the serpent. In the same way a person whose mind is scattered over many aspects of the matter and are ignorant of the basic principle of material knowledge, such a materially inclined man also become influenced by such jugglery of words.
If somebody argues that the Absolute becomes Duality if we call Him (1) Brahma or the simple all-cognisance only as well as Bhagwan or the Personality of Godhead full with six kinds of opulence. In order to avoid such conception of the Absolute the sutra directs “There is no duality in Him. By this there is no chance of the Absolute being in duality but on the contrary it is confirmed that the one is diversely manifested only. As soon as we are able to understand this aspect of the Absolute as displaying varied influence of energies, at once, the incongruity of His inconceivable opposite energies,—is removed. Qualities are not as persons. In the third Canto of Srimad Bhagwat such contradictory qualities are described as endeavors by the silent, birth of the unborn, to become afraid of enemy although fearful to fear itself and although self-sufficient yet to marry sixteen thousands of queens at Dwarka. Such contradictory terms are even bewildering to the deep thinking philosopher also. Had those activities of the Lord not been truth in reality, no sage would have been puzzled in them. Therefore the conclusion is contradictory qualities in Him are all due to His transcendental pastime. The inconceivable internal energy of the Supreme Lord create at once things of His interest as soon as the Lord desires for them.
Revealed scriptures like the Narada Pancharatra etc are recognized Vedic scriptures as they have been so accepted by the great Acharyas. There are other tantras which are in modes of passion and ignorance but these Tantras as above mentioned are famous as Satwata Tantras or Samheetas. The speaker of these Tantra is the Personality of Godhead Himself and it is placed in the Shantiparva records of Mahabharata Liberated persons, like Narada, who are known as the divyasuris—are the propagators of such scriptures. Srimad Bhagwatam is also counted as one of these Satwata Samheetas. The Mayavadins do interpret the authorities of Pancharatra in a manner which is just the opposite view of it and such unceremonious acts are subject to rectification as described below:
(1) In interpreting the 42nd aphorism of the Vedanta Sutra, Sripad Sankaracharya has described Samkarsan as the living entity. But in fact the Bhagwat school never identifies Sankarsan with ordinary living being. He (Samkarsan) is the transcendental Personality of Godhead, indelible, Godhead, sustainer of the living being, all perfect, Substance, Great, the cause of all causes. He is never the infinitesimal living entity or part and parcel of the Whole Entity. Any follower of the Vedas and Vedic literature will always admit that the living entities are also eternal without any birth and death.
(2) And in reply to Shankars’ explanation of 430 aphorism we may cite quotation from Brahma Samheeta which runs as follows:—
“It is just like the flame of a lamp, which kindles another flame in another lamp and the 2nd flame kindles a third one and so on. All these flames are of the same burning quality. None of them is different from one another neither they are of different identity. In the same way the Primeval Lord Govinda who manifests Himself in such diversity is the object of my worship.”
(3) The explanations of Shankara, in his commentation of the 44th aphorism, such as the plenary expansions of the Personality of Godhead being different personalities—is never acceptable by the followers of ‘Pancharatra’. In his own explanation of the 42nd aphorism, he has himself agreed to accept the theory of plenary expansions of the Lord as identical from one another. Therefore he is inconsistent and self contradictory in his attempt to explain the two different aphorisms namely 44th and 42nd. What he has agreed to accept beforehand is again contradicted by his ownself.
The Bhagwat School do not accept the theory of (?)theism on account of its advocating the plenary expansions of Vishnu in quadruforms. They believe it very strongly that Narayana the Personality of Godhead is fully omnipotent and He is always competent to manifest His inconceivable energies in diverse ways. This is the purport of Laghubhagabatamritam compiled by Srila Rupa Goswami.
In the Kurma Puranam, this is clearly stated that there is nothing like the duality of cause and effect in the multi-display of the plenary expansions of the Personality of Godhead. The Personality of Godhead is Absolute and therefore there is nothing Second than Him in His pastimes and diverse paraphernalia. The Plenary expansions are all transcendental controller of the external energy and as such there can be nothing like duality experience of the material senses. Every thing is complete by itself and everything is identical with another in His kingdom. They are all self-sufficient spiritual Forms complete in themselves. The evidence of Shruti is there which says that the Personality of Godhead is Complete in Himself. Anything that emanates from Him is also complete. There is nothing beyond Him which is more complete than Him. He remains the same complete identity even if He expands Himself by another many many complete expansions.”
The cosmic manifestations beginning from Brahma down to ant, all of them are different display of His (Lord Vishnu’s) external energy. Such expansions of the external energy of the Lord are never identical with the potency of Personal expansions. Any attempt to make these two as identical in all respect is against the principle of theism, and it is a malafide endeavor of the materio-spiritualists who always misidentify Spirit with matter. Universal Form of the Lord which includes all diversities of matter beginning from Brahma to the ant, is but one-fourth portion of the inconceivable mystic powers of the Lord. This is in relation with the matter and as such it is material dispensation of the Personality of Godhead. The impersonalists or the Mayavadi school do always perplex the brain by such unathorized attempt for mixing spirit with matter. It is the nature of such imperfect philosophers.
(4) We may mention herewith the purport of Laghubhagabatmritam, in reply to the commentation of 45th aphorism made by Sripad Shakaracharya. In the statement of Laghubhagabatamritam, the qualities of the Personality of Godhead are described to be transcendental. The Mayavadi school has no information of transcendental qualities. In their opinion trascendence means void of all qualities because qualities are manifested in matter only. As such according to them all qualities are material only and nothing more. Such material qualities are temporary and flickering display only and therefore such qualities are as false as the mirage. But when we speak of the Personality of Godhead as transcendence, we accept His qualities also transcendental. The Absolute Person is non-different from His Personal Qualities. Such qualities are also spiritual and therefore they are all full of bliss and knowledge. This is confirmed in the ‘BrahmaTantra” as follows:—”Being identical in His body and mind, His Personal qualities are also identical with Him. Therefore the qualities, of the Personality of Godhead and that of liberated persons, are never different from them on account of their being all spirit.” In the Vishnu-Puranam the following statement is found in this connection “Except the material qualities, all knowledge, energy, influence, opulence, power and strength all these are paraphernalia of the Personality of Godhead.” So also in the Padma Puranam it is said that the Personality of Godhead who is said to be transcendental to all material qualities or without any qualities, indicates that He has no material qualities, Forms Names, etc.”
In the third canto of Srimad Bhagwatam it is said like this “Oh Dharma! (Protector of religious principles) All the qualities which are noble and sublime that I have described before you and those qualities which are allied to them, do always remain in the Person of Shri Krishna. Any individual person who desires to be one of the great sages does also aspire after possessing such noble qualities.”
The conclusion is that Lord Shri Krishna is the Fountain Head of immeasurable transcendental qualities, inconceivable potencies and is the transcendental Form of absolute bliss.
Shripad Ramanujacharya has also refuted the arguments of Shripad Shankaracharya in his commentary of Brahma Sutras. The substance of his (Ramanujacharya’s) refutations are as follows:—
“Shripad Shankaracharya has tried to reject the Pancharatras also along with the philosophy of Kapila which are against the principles of the Vedas. He has tried to establish the Pancharatras as unauthorized like Kapila’s thesis. It is said in the Pancharatras that from Vasudeva, the Supreme Cause of all causes, the Personality of Jiva called by the name Shamkarshan has emerged out. And from Shankarsan, Pradyumna the mind and from Praddyumna ego which known as Anniruddha has come out. This coming out does not mean beginning of birth. Because no Jiva or living entity ever takes his birth. Birth of a living entity is never accepted by the Shrutis. The Katha Upanishad (2.18) says that the living entity never takes his birth neither does he ever die. And all the Vedic literatures uniformly accepts this verdict of beginninglessness of the living entity. Therefore in the Pancharatras expansions of Vasudeva as Shankarshan, Pradyumna and Anniruddha has described the expansions of the Predominating Deity who is the total source of living entities, total source of mind and total source of ego.
According to Shruti everything has emanated from the Transcendence or the Super-soul. A living entity is the subject and mind is his instrument. Subject is the cause of instrument and instrument is not the cause of the Subject. As such it is contradictory to the aphorisms of Shruti if it be accepted that mind is generated from the living being. That cannot be accepted because mind is generated from the Absolute Godhead.
Besides this the quadruforms known as Shamkarsan, Pradyumna, Aniruddha all have the potential features of the Absolute Personality of Godhead according to the revealed scriptures which undeniable facts and no body can refute them. Therefore these quadruforms are never to counted in the category of ordinary living beings Each and everyone of them are plenary expansions of the Absolute Godhead and such each and every one of them are identical Personality of Godhead fully potential with knowledge, opulence, energy, influence, prowess and potencies and therefore the evidence of Pancharatra cannot be neglected. Untrained persons who have bonafide study of the Pancharatra, can say irrelevently that Pancharatra has said against the Shrutis about the birth or beginning of the living being. In this connection we have to accept the verdict of the Bhagwat. The Bhagwat says, “The Absolute Personality of Godhead, Who is known as Vasudeva and is very much affectionate towards His surrendered devotees—does also expand Himself into quadruforms who are subordinates and at the same identical with Him in all respects.” This is confirmed in the Ponskar Samheeta as follows:—
“Agama scripture is that which directs the worship of quadruforms by the Brahmins as imparative duty. These quadruforms are identical with Vasudeva and as such worshipment of the quadruforms is the worship of Vasudeva. Vasudeva is the Absolute Personality of Godhead and His eternal Form is full with six potential energies. There is no difference between His plenary expansions and He is worshipped by the devotee in different grades of devotional service. His expansions such as Nrisingha, Rama, Matsa, Varaha are as good as He is Himself and worship of any one of them, in the loving choice of the devotee, can lead the devotee to the same destination of Vasudeva
Because it is clearly mentioned in the Ponskar Samheeta that by worshipping the quadruforms, Vasudeva can be attained it is conclusive that Vasudeva and His quadruforms namely Shamkarshan etc. all are identical. They are also the Absolute Personality of Godhead. He can expand Himself immediately without waiting for the process of appearance by the mundane living being. This is just in accordance of the Vedic conclusion. The statement of the Pancharatra is not against the Vedic conclusion because it mentions of the quadruforms Who assume such forms out of loving affection towards His devotees. Therefore there is nothing contradictory in this scripture because it has mentioned the appearances Shankarshan, Praddyumna, Aniruddha one after another from Vasudeva and they have been named as the living being mind and ego. In fact they are the predominating Deity of the living being, mind and ego. There is not the least contradiction of the Vedic conclusion. It is just like one can understand the Absolute Brahman by the nomenclature of sky and vitality.
In this scripture beginning of a living being has been denied. Because it is said in the Param Samhita that the material nature, which is lifeless, conducted by others and ever-suceptable to the laws of transformation, is the field of action in three modes for the fruitive worker. The Absolute Personality of Godhead is only related with such material nature by His all pervasive potency. As such material nature is also beginningless and substantial on account of becoming an energy of the Absolute. In this way in all the Samhitas, the living being has been accepted as eternal and therefore beginning of the living being has been denied in the Pancharatra. Anything that is born is sure to be annihilated at some later time. Therefore acceptance of beginning of the living being indicates its destruction also. But the living being on account of his being an eternal object, automatically his birth is forbidden. In the beginning of the Param Samhita it has definitely said that the face of the material nature is constantly changeable. Therefore beginning and annihilation and all such terms are applicable on the material nature only. Judging on all the above points, the arguments of Sripad Shankaracharya that Samkarshan is a living being, is totally refuted by the above argument. In this connection the commentation of Sri Srimad Sridhar Swami is most interesting and one may compare the same with him.
Further if any one, wants to know detailed refutations of the arguments of Shankara in the matter of his statements to prove Shankarshan as a living being, he may at once refer to the commentation made by Sripad Sudarshanacharya on Shri Vasya known as “Shrutaprakash Tika.”
So the original quadruforms such Krishna, Valadeva, Pradyumna Aniruddha expands into another quadruform being present in the Parabyoma or the spiritual sky in general where the Vaikuntha planets are displayed. Therefore this quadruforms in the spiritual sky is the second manifestation of the original one at Dwarka. And as explained above the quadruforms of Vasudeva, Samkarshan, Praddyumna and Aniruddha all are plenary expansions of the Supreme Lord without any change and all of them are transcendental and without any relation with the material modes. The Samkarshan Form, in the second quadruform, is not only a representation of Valarama but also He is the original cause of the causal ocean where the Karan Vishnu is lying asleep and breathing out innumerable seeds of the universes.
In the spiritual sky there is the spiritual creative energy which is called technically “Suddhasatwa” And in all the Vaikuntha planets sustained by this pure spiritual energy of ‘Suddhasatwa’ complete with full opulences of knowledge, wealth, prowess, etc. And all these action of ‘Suddhasatwa’ is the display of the potencies of Mahasamkarsan. This Mahasamkarsan is the ultimate rest of all the individual living entities who are toiling in the material world. When the cosmic creation is annihilated, the living entities who are by nature non-destructible,—do rest in the body of the Mahasankarsan. Sankarsan is sometimes therefore called the total Jiva. The living entities are spiritual sparks and such sparks have the tendency of being inactive with the association of material energy. As much as a spark of the fire has the tendency of being extinguished as soon as it comes out of the fiery place and falls down as an offsuit extinguished for the time being with potency of being again kindled in association with the Supreme Being Having these two alternative position of the living being simultaneously, this energy is called marginal potency i.e. the potency which can display itself either in matter or in spirit.
So it is concluded herein that Sankarsan is the origin of KaranVishnu Who is original Form for creating the universes and this Sankarsan is again another plenary part expansion Shri Nityanada Rama.
So far is the explanation of the 8th sloka out of the 14 original slokas and presently the author desires to begin explanation of the 9th sloka which is made as follows:—
“My worshipped obeisances are due to Sri Nityanada Rama whose partial manifestation is the First Purushavatara out of the three. And the first Purushavatara is directly the superintending deity of material energy and is the resting fountainhead of all the universes of cosmos. He lies on the bed of causal ocean.”
The impersonal glowing effulgence known as Brahman is the outerspace of the Vaikuntha planets in spiritual sky. Outside that impersonal Brahman there is a great ocean which is (?) causal water lying in between the material and spiritual skies. The material energy or Nature is offsuit of this causal ocean. The causal ocean is the margin between spirit and matter. The Karan Vishnu who lies on in that causal ocean creates the universes by his glance only upon the material nature. Therefore in the matter of such material creation Krishna has nothing to do personally. In the Bhagwat Geeta this is confirmed that the Lord throws His glance over material nature and thus she produces so many material cosmos. Either Krishna in the Goloka or Narayana in Vaikuntha does not directly come in contact for material creations. They are completely out of all connection with material energy. It is the function of the Mahasamkarshan who in the form of Karan Vishnu puts His glance over the material creations. The material nature is therefore situated outside the limits of causal ocean. The material nature is connected with the Personality of Godhead by His glances over her. and nothing more. She is impregnated so to say by His glancing energy. The material energy called by name Maya does not even touch the causal ocean as the glancing focus is transferred from far away distant. This glancing power of the Lord agitates the whole cosmic energy and its actions begin at once. This means matter, however powerful she may be, has no power by herself. The activity begins by the grace of the Lord and then the whole cosmic creation is manifested one by one in a systematic. The example of our own experience in the matter of conception of a woman can be applied here also to understand the subject to a certain extent. The mother is inert. The father puts his energy within the mother and thus she conceives. She supplies the ingredients for the growth of the child in the womb. Similarly material nature supplies the ingredients of cosmic development. Therefore the material nature stands in two different phases. The one side of her manifestation is called ‘Pradhan’ as she supplies the material ingredients for such cosmic development and the other phase is called ‘Maya’ i.e. the manifestation made by her ingredients are just like the foams of the ocean which stands for a temporary period. ‘Maya’ means a false temporary flareup. In reality such manifestations of the material nature is originally caused by the spiritual glancing over her. The direct or remote cause of creation is the Personality of Godhead and material nature is the indirect or immediate cause. The materialistic scientist, on account of their being puffed up by some magical changes of their so-called invention, cannot see behind the matter, the real potency of Godhead. Therefore such jugglery of science is gradually leading people to a Godless civilization at the cost of missing the great goal of human life. The materialists have missed the goal of life. They are running after self-sufficiency without knowing that material nature is by Herself self-sufficient by grace of God. What they are doing is that they are disturbing the fixed up position of self sufficiency in the name of civilization creating a collosal hoax of imbalanced distribution. In fact to think of material nature as all in all without knowing the original cause, is a sort of ignorance and Lord Chaitanya appeared to dissipate this darkness of ignorance and to ignite the spiritual sparks of life which once generated the fire of tribulations all over the world becomes at once mitigated by His causeless mercy.
The author of Shi Chaitanya Charitamrita cites a very good example in this connection. He says that an iron rod when it is put into contact with fire it becomes red hot fire. The iron rod is not fire but it becomes like fire in contact with real fire. Therefore all the actions and reactions of material nature, which whirlpooling the material scientist are not actually the work of material nature. They are so to say actions and reactions of the energy of the Supreme Lord manifested through the matter. The power of electricity transmitted through the medium of Copper does not mean the copper is electricity. The power is generated at the Power house by the handling of an expert living being call him
Therefore behind all these jugglery of natural laws there is a great living Being. Who is a person like the mechanical engineer in the power house. It is His intelligence only by which the whole cosmic creation is moving in routine way. Foolish people think that the nipples on the neck of a goat can also pour out milk.
The modes of nature which causes directly the material actions, are also originally effected by Narayana. There is a good example in this connection. There are three different causes for manufacturing anything in this world. The potter manufactures a pot for which earth, the wheel, the rod and the potter himself all are remote and immediate causes. But out of all these the potter is the chief of all causes. Similarly Narayan is the potter for all material creations. And the material energy is the supplier of matter as also acting as the wheel and the rod. Therefore the conclusion is that without Narayan all other causes are useless as much as without the potter the wheel, rod and earth are useless. Material scientists are concerned with the wheel, its rotation, rod, and the ingredients only. They have no knowledge about the potter and therefore the modernized scientific world is a Godless civilization and so it is imperfect of the 1st (?) conducted in gross ignorance of the ultimate cause. Advancement of science has a great goal to reach and that great goal is the Personality of Godhead. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is said that persons who gives too much importance on experimental thought are called Jnanins or the men of knowledge. Such sagacious men after a research of many many births can know the Personality of Godhead who is the cause of all causes. When knows Him so perfectly he surrenders unto Him and thus become a Mahatma
Regarding the theory of Prakriti and Pradhan or the material world and its ingredients and causes etc Srila Jiva Goswami has discussed the matter in his Paramatma Sandharbha as follows:—”Out of the three principal energies of the Personality of Godhead the material energy is called Maya or the external energy. This energy is subdivided into two parts. In her three modes of nature which are called the quality of goodness, the quality of passion and the quality of ignorance, she is called Maya and in her capacity of supplying the ingredients of cosmic development (as the mother supplies ingredients for the growth of the child in the womb), she is called the Pradhan. The difference between the two names namely Prakrit and Pradhan has been explained in considerable (?) in the Srimad Bhagwatam (llth canto 24th chapter) as also there (in the 10th canto 63rd chapter). There the divisions have been enunciated in terms respective predominance. It is said “Oh My Lord, ‘time’ which is the cause transforming, ‘Karma’ or activity which is the primary cause, ‘Daiva’ which awarded the result of ‘Karma’ and ‘Nature(?)' which is one’s tendency—all these four items are creations of causal part or ‘Maya’ of the external energy. Subtle ingredients, material field, linking thread or the vital force false egoistic spirit soul, eleven sense organs earth, water, fire, air, sky combined together are the ingredients of make up this body. By bodily activities the seeds of ‘Karma’ are generated and again from ‘Karma’ another body is created. It is just like the fruit created out of the seed and again the seed is there within the fruit, the reciprocal cause and effects. And this repeatation of actions and creation of body is Maya. My Lord you are transcendental to all these functions of material nature and therefore I do offer my obeisances unto you. The living entity primarily belongs to the causal part but still it has connection with the material part also. The causal part Maya has again three diverse active forces which are known as thinking, feeling and willing. Material ingredients are signs of ‘Pradhan’ Equilibrium of the modes of nature is known as ‘Abyakta’ or the non-manifested ‘Pradhan’ material nature. As explained above ‘Abyakta’ indicates no specific manifestation but everything in dormant condition. Thus we can express the non-specified stage of the Pradhan. Therefore by her causal part she is Maya and by the material part She is Pradhan. The nomenclature Pradhan is superior than May on account of her displaying a diversity in matter.
As we have explained above material nature is compared with the iron rod and the glancing power of Karan Vishnu is compared with the fire. When they are combined together the inert matter becomes heated and convulged in to various energies. Some of them are classified as material ingredients and others are classified as causal modes.
This is more clearly explained by Sri Kapildeva (incarnation of Godhead) in the Srimad Bhagwat 3.28.40. “When there is a fire, there are the flames, the sparks, the smoke and the fuel also. Everything being connected with the blazing fire in one sense each everything is identical with fire. And yet the fire is different from the flames etc. This example is complete in the sense that the material elements or ingredients are compared with smoke of the fire, the sparks are compared with the living entities, the flames are compared with the Pradhan. All of them being placed in relation with fire each and everyone of them has its specific activities but in the whole the Reality fire, which is simultaneously one and different from them, is the primeval cause of all causes. Therefore the Nature, which is given so much importance by the material scientist is powerful by the glancing power of the Personality of Godhead. Nature cannot be independant of the power of the Personality of Godhead. Forgetting the original nucleus of power if somebody gives importance to Natural laws (?) power it is something like mistaking the nipple like bunch of flesh of a goat as the source of milk.
According to the conclusion of the Vedic literatures the cosmic creation is manifested before the conditioned soul by the Absolute emanating His diverse energies. But to the materialists or more properly to the material scientists, the manifested cosmos is the creation of material nature. The Absolute or Substance has diverse energies of which three are principal namely the spiritual energy, the material energy and the spiritual cum material energy. Those who have not heard the vedas from the authoritative sources, do conclude that Nature is the cause of material cosmos. The Vedantists or the followers of the Vedas do not admit it. According to the Vedantists the whole spirit is the substance and material nature is the shadow only. Therefore the Substance Who is Absolute Personality of Godhead is identically represented with His spiritual energies. The material nature is engineered with spiritual energy and thus it is able to manifest itself in diverse wonderful reactions. The living entities inspite of his becoming of the same spiritual energy, they prone to be attracted by the material energy and thus subjected to the conditional laws of nature from a time immemorial. Such conditioned souls are loitering in the material cosmos by repeatation of Karma and necessary acceptance of different material bodies. This conditioned state of the living entity has become possible on account of his misuse of spiritual consciousness. When he is liberated from such material conception of life, he can at once realize that spiritual service is the real platform of his eternal life. So long he is not liberated, he thinks himself as the mover(?) of material energy and thus engages himself in the false ownership or proprietorship of material nature in part or whole. His senses therefore are misguided with a view to material enjoyment and this misguided energy of the living being makes him a slave of the material nature.
The Lord impregnates the opposite material energy with His spiritual energy. The example is very appropriate when we say that fire and its heat both can make iron rod exactly like the fire to act like it although it is actually not fire. Therefore the material energy is a bye product of the spiritual energy. Foolish conditioned souls on account of their long association with matter wrongly concludes that the manifested cosmos is the creation of material energy. But a liberated soul, who has just overcome the illusory influence of material energy, can realize that spirit or Brahman is reality whereas the non-spirit matter is false. He can at once realize that the material nature can act only being empowered by the spiritual force. Material energy which is a perverted form of spiritual energy does present everything in a perverted matter bringing in thereby all inebrieties misconception and dualities in the matter. The conditioned soul is baffled in his attempt to draw out milk out of the bunch of flesh in the neck of a goat. In the same so long the material scientist will continue deduct all powerful milk of material power from the source of material energy, they will be baffled in their attempt to have complete perfection of life. The material energy perverted as it is creates an illusory influence on the forgetful soul in the matter of non-acceptance of the real substance. When such misguided soul is liberated, he can see in the material nature two powerful oblivians of the name covering and misleading power. As there are two causes in the manufacture of a pot namely the remote cause like the potter and the elementary cause like the earth and wheel, in the same way the manifested material cosmos is remotely caused by the Supreme Powerful Absolute Personality of Godhead. Empowered by Him only the material nature moves and acts by the laws of nature fixed up by the Lord. And foolish materialist in his state of forgetfulness does not care for the Supreme Lord but thinks himself as the knower and enjoyer of matter.
The result of such forgetfulness of the relation of the Supreme Lord is to see everything in the manifested cosmos as material creation. But in fact the Absolute Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna is the Primeval cause of the spiritual and material creations as well as He is the origin of the marginal potency known as the living being. Material conception of things is the act of material energy where as spiritual conception of things is the act of spiritual energy. From the spiritual sources only we can realise that omnipotential energy is invested in the all powerful Personality of Godhead. He is great and His fragmental infinitesimal parts and parcels are the living entities.
It is a miserable misunderstanding that the Absolute Whole becomes divided into parts as also to think that the parts and parcels become again one with Him. In the matter of collectivism and individualism the Lord is the all powerful controller of all energies whereas the living being is one of the controlled energy of the Lord. When the controlled living being puts up in his natural position of being voluntarily controlled by the Lord, he is no more under the illusion of the material energy.
Now so far the transcendental glancing over the material nature by the Karana Vishnu is concerned, the Lord impregnates the material nature by that glancing. Such glancing over acts in two wise ways. The transcendental molecules of that glancing are particles of spirit or spiritual atoms which take different species of life according to their individual seeds of karma in the previous cosmic manifestation. And the Lord Himself by His partial representation creates the body of innumerable universes. And in each every one of those universes he again enters as Garvodak Vishnu. His coming in contact with Maya is explained in the Bhagwat Geeta in the comparison of air or sky. The sky enters into everything material still it is far far away from us. This is the sum and substance of the creation of material cosmos.
In the Brahma Samhita which was compiled by Shri Brahma by his personal realization, the creative energy of the Lord is stated as follows:- “I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Govinda Whose one plenary portion is MahaVishnu or Karana Vishnu who creates the innumerable universes by the exhalation of his breathing. When he exhales out his outgoing breathing the spiritual seeds or the nucleus of the universes come out in the manner as the atomic particles are visible in the focus of the sun penetrating through a small hole. The dimension of such atomic particles are three times the measurement of a atom. In these days atomic research it will be an worth engagement for the atomic scientist to learn from this statement how the whole universe developed from the spiritual atom emanating from the bodily focus of the Lord.
Once Lord Brahma the head of the universal management came to testify the genuineness of Lord Krishna’s appearance at the local Vrindaban. In order to test the power of Krishna, he moved all the flocks of cows and the band of cow boys who were roaming with Krishna. When he saw that in spite of such wholesale removal of Krishna’s playmates—He was full again by His own potency Brahma accepted his foolishness. Defeated as he was he sang like this; (Bhag. 10.14.11) amongst other songs.
“My Lord just compare as to where I am, who is but a body made of material nature, ego and five elements and where your Lordship is Who is the source of all the seeds of universes coming out of the holes of hair of your body?” The purport is that a conditioned soul up to the limit Brahma, who can manage the affairs of the who universe, cannot be compared with Personality of Godhead who can produce numberless universes simply by the spiritual rays emanating from holes of hair of His body. Material scientist can take lessons from the utterances of Shri Brahma as to how insignificant we are in comparison to God. In this prayer songs of Brahma there is many thing to learn for those who are falsely puffed by some tiny accumulation of material power.
Here we are studying the immeasureable potency of Sri Krishna Who expands Himself first into Valaram as the original Samkarshan. He again expands Himself into 2nd Samkarshan in Vaikuntha. And the Karan-Vishnu or Mahavishnu is another 4th expansion of Samkarshan. These different expansions of Krishna in the 2nd 3rd 4th steps are called His ‘Kala’ The Garvodashayee Vishnu is partial expansion of Mahavishnu or Karan-Vishnu.
In the Satwata Tantra, the following reading appears in connection with the different expansions Known as Purusha Avatars.
“In the transcendental sky Lord Vishnu has Three Forms 1st one is the creator of material energy and is known as MahaVishnu avatar. The second one is called Garvodak Shayee Vishnu Who is the collectivity representation of all the numberless universes. And the third is called Kshiroda Shayee Vishnu Who is the Supersoul of every individual living entity. He is called also the Paramatma. Anyone who is able to understand these three expansions of Krishna can easily become liberated from the clutches of Maya.”
The Khirodak-Shayee Vishnu is his turn, although He is plenary portion of another plenary portion, is the Primeval Lord of all incarnations such Matsya, Kurma, Varaha etc. In the Srimad Bhagwat these incarnations are described as either plenary portion or the portion of the plenary portion i.e. kala—but to distinguish Sri Krishna from them, it is clearly stated there that Lord Sri Krishna is the original Godhead. All these incarnations appear in occasionally when the people are disturbed by enemies of the king of heaven. The king of heaven called by the name Indra is the governing deity along with other assistant gods to make departmental management for water supply, air light etc. to inhabitants of all planets.
So far the cosmic creation is concerned, the Khirodak Shayee Vishnu is the All powerful Godhead and controls the actions of creation, maintenance and annihilation. The incarnations appears and disappears at intervals for the purpose of creation, maintenance etc. of the cosmic universes. As such the Karana Vishnu is the original incarnation. Srimad Bhagwat confirms this statement (2.6.42)
In the Laghubhagabatamritam 1st part there is some statement with regard to the appearance and disappearance of the incarnations. “The Primeval Lord Himself or through His different plenary portions do appear on account of some special function in respect of the material creation. And such appearance (?) represented by Himself or by His agent for some specific purposes is called Avatar or the incarnation. Such Avatars are of two different categories. One is He Himself and the agent is His devotee. Vasudeva (who appeared as the Father Sri Krishna) is His devotee. According to the commentation of Srila Valadeva Vidyabhusan this material cosmic manifestation is a partial kingdom of God. In that kingdom God, sometimes God has to come down to execute some specific function. And the Plenary portion of the Lord, through Who, Lord Krishna executes such actions,—is called MahaVishnu. This MahaVishnu is Primeval beginning of all incarnations. The common folks presume it that material nature is accepted as all in all. She is the real enjoyer of everything. The Purusha or the conditioned soul is only the causal representation of material nature. But Bhagwat school has definitely realised it in its finer issue that material Nature is neither the Supreme nor the causal element. The material cause is awarded by the glancing of the Lord and the causal part Maya both of them are energies of the Lord. And the plenary portions of the Lord, Who thus impregnates the gross material nature with such power of production—is called the incarnation or incarnations. Such plenary portions are as good as the Lord Himself in all respects but because their respective functions are concerned in the matter of material affairs, such plenary portions are sometimes called incarnation of the material Nature.
The conclusion is therefore that the original incarnation is Karan Vishnu or Mahavishnu. Other manifestation such time, space, mind, intelligence, earth, water, fire, air, sky, ego, three modes of nature namely quality of goodness, passion ignorance, the sense organ, the all pervading form, the Absolute, movable and immovable living beings all of them are different energies of the Lord. That is the verdict of Srimad Bhagwatam. This is also confirmed by Suta Goswami when he was speaking before the assembly of many many Rishis at Naimisaranya. He said that as the mission of creating the material cosmos, the Lord expanded Himself as the First Purushavatar full with sixteen energies of material Nature.
The sixteen energies are mentioned in the Laghu Bhagwatamritam as follows:—(1) Shri (2) Bhoo, (3) Leela, (4) Kanti, (5) Kurti, (6) Tusti, (7) Geeh, (8) Pusti, (9) Satya, (10) Jnanajnana, (11) Jaya Utkarsini, (12) Vimala (13) Yogmaya (14) Prahlei, (15) Ishana (16) Anugraha. These sixteen energies are said to be existent in Vaikuntha.
Shri Valadeva Vidyabhusan has made a commentation on the Laghu Bhagabatamrita and he says that the above energies are also known as (1) Vimala (2) Utkarsini, (3) Jnana (4) Kria, (5) yoga, (6) Prahvi, (7) Satya, (8) Ishana (9) Anugraha altogether nine only. And in the Tatwa Sandarbha of Srila Jiva Goswami (117) they are described as Sria, Pusthya, Gira, Kantya, Kartya, Tusti, Laya, Urjia, Vidya, Avidya, Maya, Sambid, Sandhini, Ahladini, Bhakti, Munti, Vimala, Ayoya, yoga, Prahvi, Ishana, Anugraha, Sria, etc. All these different energies act in different spheres of the Lord’s supremacy.
The Absolute Truth Personality of Godhead is the sustainer of everything manifested by His varied energies as mentioned above (?) yet as the Supreme Super Soul He is within everything. So He is without and within everything. And although He is so connected with the material creation by His becoming the sustainer as well as the Super Soul—He is transcendentally situated above the material creations. How the Lord is transcendentally situated is described in the Laghubhagabatamritam as follows:—
“As the directive authority of the modes of material nature, the Absolute Lord is related with material creation by the term ‘yoga’. And this ‘yoga’ is the link for reviving the connection of the living being with the Lord. He is not therefore one of those who are conditioned by the laws of Nature. That is transcendental position or ‘yoga’ The modes of Nature or the ‘Gunas’ means the laws of Nature. And to control the laws of nature, the trio deities namely Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesware are three principal controllers. To be controller of the laws does not mean that the controller is the victim of such law. This connection as controller is technically known as ‘yoga’ therefore the Lord is never conditioned by the laws of nature. This is confirmed in the statement Dramila of the Navayogindra group—as described in the 11th Canto of Srimad Bhagbatam. It is also clearly explained in the 1st canto of Srimad Bhagbatam (chap 11.38) that the Supremacy of the Lord is exhibited in His acts of the material world without being affected by the laws of material nature. There are may liberated souls in this material world who are never illusioned or attracted by the laws of Nature and what to speak of the Lord.
The conclusion is that notwithstanding His relation with material nature in the acts of material and efficient causes He is never to be conceived as one who is within the laws of Nature. The Bhagwat Geeta confirms this that the whole manifestive creation is sustained by the Lord and still the Lord is within the material world. And again neither the Lord is within the material world nor the world is sustained by Him. This is the philosophical truth of becoming simultaneous one and different from one another.
It is explained as follows: Nothing is possible in existence without being energized by the will of the Lord. The whole manifested creation is therefore resting on the energy of the Lord. We should not for that reason accept everything as the Lord. Atheistic attitude of aversion to the Lord is called Maya and such attitude does not exist in the energy of the Lord. This is called an illusion or a thing appears to be true but has no place in the Absolute Truth. Therefore when the Lord descends on this material world, he does not become something made of matter. That is an illusion only the fools, according to Bhagwat Geeta, consider it that the Absolute Truth is impersonal non manifested because they do not know the transcendental nature of the Lord. The Lord is always transcendental when He is beyond our vision as well as when He descends before us. He does not change anything of His Personality neither He becomes from imperson to a Person. And everything related with His Personal Pastime is also transcendental. He descends in the material world for different functions of His transcendental nature.
And at the same time the material nature also cannot exist independantly as a separate identity. The Personality of Godhead Vishnu does not for that reason mix up with the modes of nature and His transcendental personality does not become anything like enjoyable matter. That is His prerogative all powerfulness inconceivable by the infinitesimal living being.
In the Bhagwat Geeta this fact is corroborated in 9.4-5 as follows:—”I am all pervasive all over the universe by my impersonal feature. Everything created is sustained by Me and yet I have nothing to do with anything of the matter. Then again all material creation do not rest upon Me although I am the sustainer and I am the producer of everything material.” That is the inconceivable transcendental nature of the Lord.
Thus the first Purushavatar extended for this purpose of material creations is the plenary portion of Shri Nityananda Rama. And this much is the explanation of the 9th sloka.
The tenth sloka explains as follows:—” I do worship the lotus feet of Srila Nityananda Rama whose second plenary portion is the Garvodayashayee Vishnu from whose navel a lotus stem has grown up as the store house of all the planets and the lotus is the birth place of Brahma the superintending deity of this universe.”
The Karana Vishnu creates all the innumerable universes and after this He enters in each of them by extending Himself as Garvodaka Shayee Vishnu in numberless forms. When He enters into the universe, He sees everything full of darkness and there is no place to rest. He thus creates a reservoir of water by His perspiration and fills up half of the universe by that water. This universe is calculated to be 400,00,00,000(?) four hundred crores of miles in diameter. The universe is round. And there are numberless other universes smaller and greater than this all tacked together at the end of spiritual sky where there is the Karan ocean the place Karan Vishnu is lying within the water.
In each universe half of it is covered in water and the other half accomodates the fourteen planetary systems called by the names (1) Bhu, (2) Bhuva, (3) Swa, (4) Maha, (5) Jana, (6) Tapa, and (7) Satya. All these planetary systems are situated on the top and the other seven systems called by the names (1) Tal, (2) Atal, (3) Vital, (4) Nital, (5) Talatal, (6) Mahatal and (7) Sutal, all these are situated down the Bhuloka planetary system where we are at present. All the downwards planetary system is called in total as Patal. Out of the top side planetary system, the planetary systems at the end of Swah loka—they are called Swarga and the rest is called Marta. The whole universe is thus known as Triloka also.
Within the Satyaloka planetary system there are paticular planet which is a duplicate of the Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky where there is ocean of milk within which there is island called by the name Swetadwipa on account of its being placed on the milk-white ocean.
And in the down reservoir of water first created by the perspiration of Garvodaya Vishnu the lies on the Sesha Plenary expansion of Vishnu. There is a good description of this Sesha Form of the Personality of Godhead in the Bhagwat as also in the four vedas chanting like this
Sahara sirsa purusha sahasrakshya sahasrapat.
Sa bhumim viswato vritwatyatisthaddasangulam.
This Vishnu Form is called Annantasayanam Who has thousands of hand and legs, thousands of eyes, all Who is active generator of all the incarnations within the material world. From His navel grows a lotus stem the birthplace of Brahma the head man of the universe.
The fourteen planetary systems are accommodated within the stem. Brahma the head man of the universe is living entity like a man with inconceivable invested power. But Vishnu who maintains the equilibrium of the universe is Personality of Godhead and as such He is transcendental to cosmic situation. Maheswar who destroys the whole thing at the end of creation is via Media between Vishnu and Brahma. His position is less than Vishnu but He is greater than Brahma. Maheswar or Lord Shiva is not an ordinary living being neither He is equal to Lord Vishnu. The comparison is effectively made in the Brahma Samheeta that Vishnu is like milk whereas Shiva is like the curd. The curd is nothing but milk but it is not milk also.
This Garvodaya Shayee Vishnu is in fact Hiranyagarva Antaryami and the efficient cause of creation. A plenary portion of Him is called ‘Virata’ or ‘Viswarupa’ which was exhibited to Arjuna as described in the Bhagwat Geeta.
In the Mahabharat (Narayana pakhyam, Moksha dharma in the Shantiparva chap: 339.70-72 and 340.27-28) it is said that the Personality of Godhead Who is known as Pradyumna is also Aniruddhya and the Sesha also the progenitor of Brahma. The purport is that Garvodak Shayee Vishnu and Khirodakshayee Vishnu both are identical Personalities and plenary expansions of Pradyumna who is original Deity of Padmayoni (Brahma). Pradyumna gives Brahma all inspirations and direction for cosmic management. A full description of Brahma’s birth is given in the Bhagwat (3.8.15-16).
In the Laghubhagbatamritam it is said like this:—”The pastimeous four handed Form of Garvodashayee Vishnu enters within the stem of navel lotus and is celebrated as ‘Vishnu’. This Lord Vishnu is the Super soul of all the living entities of all descriptions. In the Satwata Tantras there is a mention of the 3rd Purusha avatar who is the Supersoul of every living being. That third Purusha avatar is no other than this pastimeous form of Garvodashayee Vishnu as mentioned above.
Out of the three modes of nature or laws of nature the one, which is known as goodness (Satwa), is dominated by Lord Vishnu and therefore He is known Satwa Tanu. And for this reason the Vishnu Who lives in the milk white ocean is called Satwa Tanu. In other words the quality of goodness in the laws of nature is an outward function of Vishnu and thus He is known as Satwa Tanu. In the tenth canto of the Bhagwat the Lord (Hari) is described as transcendental. And because He is the Primeval Lord, He is the source of knowledge for Brahma and other directing gods. Anyone who worships the Lord Vishnu or Hari, does also attain the transcendental position. One can therefore derive the highest benefit from this Satwa Tanu Personality of Godhead.
So far is the explanation of the 10th sloka and let us now try to explain the 11th sloka which runs as follows:—
“Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Srila Nityananda Rama Who is the Super soul of all the living being as the Lord Vishnu in the ocean of milk and Who is the maintainer of them. He is the primeval Deity of the cosmic creation.
Regarding the ocean of milk, there is a description of all the different kinds of ocean within the universe like this in the ‘Siddhantasiromani” an astrological regulation. Within the universe in different places or in different planets there are different kinds of oceans also such as (1) Saline ocean, (2) Lactic ocean, (3) Curdic ocean, (4) Fatty ocean, (5) Saccarine ocean, (6) Vinum ocean and (7) Pure aquatic ocean. So there are seven different kinds of oceans out of which we have only experience of the Saline ocean on earth. The ballistic missile throwers in the outer space will do well to search out other oceans in other planets and see the wonders of God’s creation. On the southern side of the ranges of Saline oceans there is the ocean of milk. Lord Vishnu the maintainer of this universe resides there. He is worshipped there in His lotus feet by the directive gods like Brahma others.
In the Laghubhagabatamritam there is reference of this ocean of milk while describing all about Vishnu. It is said there as follows:—”On the top of Rudraloka (the planet which, occupied by Lord Shiva) another planet with circumference of five hundred billions of miles called by the name Vishnuloka, which is almost inaccessible by any mortal being. And above this on the top of Sumeru there is a great saline ocean in the midst of which there is a golden island called by the name Mahavishnuloka. This ocean is sometimes visited by great personalities like Brahma and others. In that golden island Lord Vishnu and His consort Laksmi sleep on the (?) of Sesha continually for four months. On the eastern side of Sumeru there is another sea of milk in which there is white city where the Lord can be seen sitting on a throne of Sesha accompanied by His consort Lakshmiji. In that residence also during four months of rainy season, the Lord takes rest asleep. The Setadwipa in the milk white ocean is just situated on the south of this range of Saline ocean. The area of that Setadwipa is calculated to 200,000 miles. This island is transcendentally beautiful with all desired trees and decorations for pleasing the Lord Vishnu and His consort.
There is reference of this Setadwipa in the Brahmanda Purana also as there is in the Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata. In the Padmapuranam also there is reference of this Setadwipa. In the Bhagwat Puranam (11.15.18) the following reference is made regarding the Setadwipa. “My dear Uddhava, you may know it that My transcendental Form of Vishnu in Setadwipa is identical with Me in Divinity. Any one, who places within His heart this Lord of Setadwipa, can surpass the pangs of six material tribulations such as (1) hunger (2) thirst, (3) Birth (4) Death (5) Lamentation and (6) Illusion. This means that one can attain to His original transcendental form.”
This Lord Vishnu, Who lies on the ocean of milk, incarnates Himself as various incarnations to maintain the laws of the cosmos and to annihilate the causes of disturbances. Such incarnations are visible in each and every Manwantar i.e. in the course of the reign of a Manu who lives for 71 x 4 x 4300000 years. During one day Brahma such fourteen Manus take their birth and dies again to yield place for the next other. The denizens of heaven who live in the planetary systems beginning from the Swar, as said above, cannot even see the Lord Vishnu living in Setadwipa. They can approach up to the beach of the milk ocean without being able to reach island and from such distant place only they can transmit the transcendental sound produced by prayers of the Lord. These prayers are offered at the brink of the milk ocean at some special occasion when an appeal is made to the Lord for appearing in His incarnational Form for the purposes mentioned above. Therefore the Lord of Setadwipa is immensely potential for making and unmaking things in order. And Srila Nityananda Prabhu, being Valadeva Himself the original Form of Samkarsana is the original Form of this Lord of Setadwipa. This Lord of Setadwipa also expands Himself as the Sesha Naga who sustains on His innumerable hoods all these distributed planets within the sky. All these huge global spheres are compared with a grain of mustard resting on the spiritual hoods of Shesa Naga. Material scientists’ law of gravitation is a partial explanation of Lord Samkarsana. The meaning of gravitation almost corroborates with the etymological meaning of Samkarsana. We can just think of a mustard seed resting on the hood of a serpent and in that process all these planets are resting and revolving on the hoods of Shesa Naga. As described before the diameter of the universe is 400,000,000.0 four hundred crores of miles and the hoods of Shesa Naga is thus distributed everywhere partially realized by the material scientist in the laws of gravitation and global pull.
There is reference of this Shesa Naga in the Bhagwat Puranam (5.17.21 and 5.25.2). It is said there as follows:—”Oh my Lord! the hymns of the Vedas proclaim that you are the effective cause for creation, maintenance and destruction of the cosmos, but in fact you are transcendental to all these limitations. You are therefore known as the unlimited. On your thousands of heads, the innumerable global spheres rest like the grains of mustard and as such you have therefore no perception of their weight as they are so insignificant.”
“There are thousands of hoods of this Lord Ananta Deva and in each and every one of them sustains a global sphere which appears like a grain of mustard.”