Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā, Chapter 3 [Handwritten]
Essays on Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita.
English version and explanation of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita. by Sri Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami
Goswami Abhay Charan Bhaktivedanta
Editor “Back to Godhead”
Bhagwad Darshan etc
The League of Devotees (Reg).
1/859, Keshi Ghat
Essays on Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita. III
In this part the author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita has fully discussed the reason of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprahbu’s descent. It is said here that Lord Shri Krishna at the end of His Pastimes as Shri Krishna thought it wise to display, in the form of a devotee, how one can taste the transcendental mellow of loving relation with the Lord in terms of servitorship Friendship. Parenthood and erotic love. In the age of Kali the prescribed religiosity is “Nam Samkirtan” (Chanting the holy [name] of the Lord in congregation). Preaching of this cult of “Nama Samkirtan” is undertaken by the incarnation of the age; but so far as the confidential cult of transcendental loving service in terms of the above four principles, it has to be undertaken by Shri Krishna Himself for nobody else can exhibit this specific function. That is the reason why Shri Krishna appeared at Nabadwipa in the Form of Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The author has put forward many authentic evidences quoted from revealed scriptures to corroberate this identity of Lord Chaitanya with Lord Shri Krishna. He has established Godhead of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by authentic symptoms of a super-being. He has further explained as to how Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has preached the cult of “Nama Samkirtan” accompanied by His associates, adherents and officers. Amongst all the incarnations of Godhead, the descent of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is proportionately the most magnificent and as such it is confidential too. He can only be recognized by a pure devotee by devotional service only. In order to maintain His status quo of confidentiality—the Lord has tried His best to represent Himself as a devotee only but He was unable to conceal Himself in the presence of His confidential devotees. In the Vedas and Puranas it is purposely made to conceal Him but still there are ample hints to indicate about His future appearance. By such attempts the confidentiality of His appearance has been more systematically done and His disguised incarnation and secrecy have been explicitly adopted. When Adwitacharya appeared Himself along with other superiors, He experienced that the whole world was definitely lagging behind the devotional cult (?) Shri Krishna and in such circumstances He thought it rightly that nobody else, except the Supreme Lord Himself, was able to rouse up the spiritual consciousness of the people in general and as such He began to offer Ganges water and Tulsi leaves unto the lotus feet of the Lord to propitiate Him so that He may consent to descend and thus He cheerfully proclaimed His benign mission. Shri Krishna is always apt to descend His Personal Self by the request of pure devotees and as such the Lord appeared as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by the call of Shri Adwita Prabhu.
The author in his usual scholarly devotion prays at the lotus feet of the Lord as follows:—
“I worship the lotus feet of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by Whose mercy even a foolish person can bring out a conclusive decision from the (treasure?) mines of revealed scriptures as the miner bring out valuable gold from such mine.” He also glorifies the Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu along with His associates such as Nityananda Prabhu, Adwita Prabhu, Gadadhar Prabhu and devotees like Shri Nibas etc. After explaining the third sloka of his original fourteen prayers—now he begins to explain the 4th one as follows:—
The fourth one is a quotation from the “Vidagdhamadhak” drama edited and compiled by Srila Rupa Goswami and it is said there that since a time immemorial an alloyed love affairs of Shri Krishna was never given to be known by any devotee or any incarnation of Godhead. That transcendental love affairs of Godhead is unique and wonderful even to the liberated self-realized souls. But out of a deep compassion on the fallen living beings of this age of Kali, the Lord Himself descended to bestow upon them the supreme benefit of transcendental love with Godhead. That Personality of Godhead is the beloved son of Sachi Devi and is extraordinarily like the beauty of assembled gold with dazzling hue. Srila Rupa Goswami desires most sincerely that the Personality of Godhead may for all the time be placed on the seat of heart.“
The author says that Sri Krishna the son of the King of Braja is the original Personality of Godhead. He has been so described elaborately in the II part of this book. He enjoys eternally all the transcendental variegated opulence. This part of Leela or pastimes of Godhead which is impossible to be seen by the conditioned soul is called Aprakata Leela or pastimes beyond the purview of the conditioned soul. And therefore to display His special favour to His devotees and the people in general—He does descend once in a day of Brahma. The author takes it from the Bhagwat Geeta about the age of Brahma. His one day of 12 hours is estimated to be 4320000 x 1000 solar years approximately. The author confirms this in his narration that a Divyayuga is made by addition of the duration of the four ages namely Satya, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali yugas. The age of Kali yuga, in which we are now passing, is to endure 432000 solar years. The age of Dwapara yuga is double of that of Kali yuga (432000 x 2). Treta yuga is triple of that of kali yuga (432000 x 3) and Satya yuga is four times larger than Kali yuga. The grand total of all the ages, is then 4320000 solar years. A Manvantar (change of a Manu) takes place every 71 x 432000 solar years. One day of Brahma is equal to such 14 fourteen Manus plus 15 times the age of a Satya yuga. This duration of one day’s time in the life of Brahma, is called a Kalpa.
At present it is the regime of Vaivaswata Manu. This is also confirmed in the beginning of the 4th chapter of the Bhagwat Geeta. Vaivaswata Manu is the 7th Manu out of fourteen in one day of Brahma. After an expiry of 27 Divya yugas, as above mentioned, during the currency of the 28 Divya yuga in the life of Vaivaswata Manu Shri Krishna descends with all Holy transcendental paraphernalia within this universe.
The names of all the 14 Manus are as follows: (1) Swayamabhuva, (2) Swarochisha, (3) Uttama, (4) Tamas, (5) Raibata, (6) Chakshusa (7) Vaivaswata, (8) Sabarni, (9) Daksha-Sabarni, (10) Brahma-Sabarni, (11) Dharma-Sabarni, (12) Rudra Sabarni (13) Rouchya (14) Bhutyaka.
The descent of Shri Krishna the Absolute Personality of Godhead is very purposeful. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is said that whoever knows in truth about the purposeful descent of Shri Krishna as well as His different activities—is at once a liberated person and he has not got to get back again in this existence of birth and death after he leaves up this present material body. In other words whoever may understand Shri Krishna defacto makes his life perfect. And what is that perfect life? Imperfection of life is realized here in this material existence in five different relation with the material world. Whatever there is in the material world—we have some sort of relation with it. Such relations are five in number called by the name neutrality, servitorship, friendship, filial and nuptial love between the husband and wife or between the lover and the beloved. These five enjoyable relations with the material world are perverted reflections of their respective positions in the transcendental nature and in relation with the Absolute Personality of Godhead. Shri Krishna the Absolute Personality of Godhead descends to revive these transcendental five relations with Him existing eternally. He manifests such transcendental pastimes in Braja in order to attract people in that sphere of activities leaving aside the imitative relations with mundane paraphanlia. And after exhibiting fully all such activities the Lord disppears from the scene. But after wards He thinks that although He displays His transcendental activities, seldom does he award such transcendental love to the people. He thus considers as follows:—”I have not till now awarded personally the transcendental love for Me. And without such pure love of God freed from fruitive activities and empiric knowledge, nobody can attain perfection in life. Generally the people in general do follow the formalities of scriptures with awe and veneration. But such formalities only cannot help any body to attain the perfect enjoyable state of life in Braja. Because in the formalities of scriptural injunctions the Absolute Personality of Godhead is assumed either as impersonal or personal identity without any loving service for Him. And in such formalities pure love of Godhead is conspicuous by absence. I do not take any pleasure in such formalities of relations which are full with scriptural venerations.“
Persons who are attracted by the formalities of Shastric injunctions only, without any development of pure unalloyed pure love of Godhead, can attain five kinds of liberations of the names 1. Sarsty, 2.Samipya, 3. Sarupya and 4. Salokya. Such devotees however refuse to accept Sayujya liberation which is merging with the identity of the Absolute Whole. This Sayujya Mukti is to become one with the Absolute. This is not acceptable even by the devotees who follow only the scriptural formalities. But persons who have attained the state of pure love for Godhead do not accept even the above four kinds of liberations besides the one known as “Sayujya” as they are satisfied only in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. The Lord therefore thinks as follows:—
“I shall this time personally inaugurate the movement of congregational chanting of the Name of Hari which is prescribed religious function of the age of Kali—but I shall do it along with the four principles of unalloyed love of Godhead namely in servitorship, friendship, parenthood and nauptial relativities. I shall personally teach these transcendental activities in the love of Godhead, and people will dance in ecstasy when they are actually in such stage. And how shall I do this propaganda. I shall Myself become a devotee of the same standard and by practical demonstrations I shall teach them how this stage of perfection can be attained. This stage of confidential loving service in the Absolute realm, cannot be taught by any one else who has not entered into them or behaved like that. That is the instructions left in the Bhagwat Geeta or in the Bhagwatam.”
In the Bhagwat Geeta, (4.7-8) the Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna has explained to Arjuna the reasons for His appearance as follows:
“Oh the son of Bharata! whenever there is a flaw in the natural course of divine consciousness and there is a systematic upheaval of materialism at that time I descend my appearance being unable to endure such incongruency.”
“And in order to deliver the faithful unto Me and to annihilate the opposing elements of my devotees such as the Kamsa or Ravana, and to re-establish and propagate unalloyed devotional activities as by congregational chanting—at that time I do appear Myself.”
In the same Bhagwat Geeta (2.24) in order to dissipate the doubts in the heart of Shri Arjuna about work without any enjoying spirit, the Personality of Godhead explained as follows as to how He Himself takes to such transcendental activities. He said:—
“If I do not perform such transcendental actions the people will follow my examples and thus bring in their ruination. I shall then become the cause of unwanted population to bring in a destruction to the people in general.”
“Whatever is performed by leading personalities is followed by the people in general. What is accepted by such leader of society is also followed by the ordinary men.”
And it is a fact that partial incarnation of Vishnu cannot revive this divine consciousness of loving service. Specific function of a particular age is inaugurated by such partial incarnation of Godhead. But save and except Shri Krishna the original Personality of Godhead nobody can propagate these two particular functions namely (1) to establish the specific function of the age and (2) to award on the divine consciousness of loving service.
In the Laghu-Bhagbatamritam (5.37) a quotation of Vilwamangal Thakur is given as follows:—
“There are innumerable incarnations of the Supreme Lord from whose naval the lotus (of Brahma) is sprouted and all of them are benign blessed appearances for the well being of the world. But without the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is capable of awarding the divine consciousness of loving service.”
And for this reason only The Supreme Lord decided that He should Personally descend along with His associate devotees and exhibit such transcendental activities on the face of the globe. On this conclusion the Absolute Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna descended at Nadia in the age of Kali during its first period inauguration.
According to The Surya-Siddhanta authority the first period of inauguration of the age of Kali is 36000 of solar years. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu appeared Himself at the expiry of 4586 years of the Kali yuga—in Mayapur Nabadwipa. It is therefore within the first period of inauguration as above mentioned.
The incarnation of Lord Chaitanya is like the appearance of a lion in the jungle. He is as well-built and as powerful as a lion and His transcendental roaring is as much grave as that of a lion.
The author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita desires that the same lion in the Person of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu may occupy the heart of every living being so that by His presence the elephants of destructive sins may be annihilated by His gigantic roaring. In the beginning of His transcendental activities Lord Chaitanya was famous as Viswambhara as He fulfilled everyone’s heart with divine consciousness by capturing one and all. See derivative meaning of the root ‘Dubhrief’ is to maintain and sustain. And Viswambhara is the maintainer and sustainer of all living being.
At the end of His pastimes, He was celebrated as Shri Krishna Chaitanya because He glorified the whole world by establishing Shri Krishna the Absolute Personality.
The last days of Lord Chaitanya’s pastimes is the period after His acceptance of the renounced order of life (Sanyas) up to 24 years. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu took the Sanyas order from Sripad Keshav Bharati who belonged to the group of Shankara sect which approves of only ten names of the Sanyasis although long long before the advent of Sripad Shankaracharya the Sanyas order of Vaishnava school, in the line of Vishnuswami, existed. This Vaishnava sect of Sanyasins claimed not only the ten names of Shankara Sect but they claimed further 108 names also. During the time of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the Shankara sect was prominently known to the public and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s acceptance of Sanyas was a short of attracting the public attention. He could have preached His missionary activities as householder also but as He found it obstructive to execute His mission as a householder He decided to accept the renounced order of Sanyasa. He accepted this order in terms of strict Vaidic order. At the present moment the so called followers of the Vedic rules follow the order of Shankara sect as well as the system of worshipping five deities according to their instructions.
The ten names of the Sanyas order are as follows:—(1) Tirtha, (2) Ashrama, (3) Bona (4) Giri (5) Parbat, (6) Sagara (7) Saraswati (8) Bharati (9) Aranya and (10) Puri. Each one of them has a particular name of its Brahmachary order and they are as follows:—(1) Swarup in the order of Tirtha and Ashrama who reside at Dwarka. (2) Prakash in the order of Bona and Aranya who reside at Purushottam. (3) Ananda in the order of Giri, Parbat and Sagara who reside at Badarikashrama. And Chaitanya in the order of Saraswati, Bharati and Puri who reside at Sringeri.
Sripad Shakaracharya established four monasteries in the four directions of East, West, North and South and made his four disciples in charge of these monasteries. From these four monasteries innumerable other monasteries have sprung up in all directions. Although originally a symetry was maintained according to the different situations of the monasteries—yet at the present moment there are much differences from the original set up. The above four monasteries originally were called ‘Anandabar’ ‘Bhogabar’ ‘Keetbar’ and ‘Bhumibar’ respectively. In course of time each of these monasteries differed in ideals also. Originally each of the monasteries had a particular slogan of its own which is known as ‘Mahavakya.’ If any one desires to become a Sanyasi—he has to become at first a ‘Brahmachary’ of the particular order and the name of the Brahmachary was designated in terms of the Sanyas order. The Shankara sect strictly observe these rules up to date.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, when He approached Shripad Kesava Bharati, had to follow this disciplinary rules of Brahmachary before the order of Sanyas. But it is a peculiar to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu that He maintained His Brahmachary designation of Shri Chaitanya even after His regular acceptance of Sanyas. Nobody, who has dealt with His life and teaching, has mentioned anywhere His Sanyas name as Bharati as it ought to have been. But there is a meaning in this connection why Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu maintained His Brahmachary designation. The Mayavadi Sanyasins, just after the acceptance of Sanyas order become the Personality of Godhead themselves (? ) At least they are puffed up by such false vanity. And most probably Shi Chaitanya Mahaprabhu did not like to keep pace with such false vanity and continued to be known as Chaitanya in which such vanity is conspicuous by its absence. A Brahmachary constantly and that also most humbly considers himself as the servitor of his spiritual master which is not unfavourable to the cult of devotion. There is however definite information of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s acceptance of a rod and bowl in the symbolic order of a Sanyasi.
There is a prediction by saint Garga, which was spoken by him in connection with the naming ceremony of Shri Krishna. It is mentioned in the Bhagwat as follows:—
Garga Muni addressed Nanda Maharaj the father of Lord Krishna and said that his Shri Krishna is the Personality of Godhead who accepts different hues of bodily lusture in accordance with His appearance in different ages. As such Lord Shri Krishna had accepted the hues of whitish, reddish and yellowish lustures and at that time (when he was speaking) he accepted the blackish hue.
This statement of Saint Garga indicates that the Lord accepts yellowish hue also. This yellowish hue is hinted in respect of the color of the body of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Whose color of the body was exactly yellowish and the fact is reaffirmed in another place of the Bhagwat (11.5.27).
The idea is that the Lord accepts whitish color in the Satya yuga reddish color in the Treta yuga and yellowish color in the Kali yuga while He accepts blackish hue in the Dwapara yuga. That is the hint given by the Shastras in respect of the Lord’s appearance in the Kali-yuga as Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
In the 11th Canto of Srimad Bhagwatam chapter fifth and Sloka 27, Saint Karavajan, who is one of the nine royal mystics, explained before the King Nimi about different features of the Lord in different ages. So far the Dwapara yuga is concerned he said as follows:—
“In the Dwapara yuga the Lord appears in clothings of yellow color and with His symbolic weapons such as the wheel, club, conchshell and lotus flower etc. with marks of Srivatsa painting on the body.”
The author now describes the signs and characteristics of the Lord when does He appear in the Age of Kali. From the evidences of revealed scriptures the author says that in the age of Kali, the principle function of the Lord is to preach the glory of Divine Name. For this transcendental preaching work only there is the advent of Lord Chaitanya’s incarnation. The special feature of the body of the Lord is that the color of the body is that of molten-gold and it is strongly well-built. The voice of His throat is as grave as that of new clouds. A person is said to be an uncommon man, if he is as tall as four cubits equal in measurement of his own hand. Such a person is known as ‘Nagrodha parimandala’ The term ‘Nagrodha parimandala’ is description of a person who is not only as tall as to the length of four cubit measurement but he is so also in the measurement of the circumference of his chest round. He is no other than the Supreme Lord Himself who has encaged the conditioned souls by His own illusory energy. He is certainly the incarnation of Vishnu and nobody else. Lord Chaitanya’s hand was as long as to reach the knees of his body with His eyes compared to the petals of a lotus flower. His stretch of the nose is as pointed as that of oil-seed flower and his face is as beautiful as that of the moon. He is calm and quiet and fully devoted to the loving service of Shri Krishna persistently wellbehaved with special favour for the devotees although He is equal to all living beings. His body is decorated with sandal pulp in hands and body and he is specially so decorated during the time of His dance in congregational chanting. All these special characteristics of the Lord have been duly described by Shri Vaishampayana Muni (of Mahabharata fame) in his composition of Thousand verses of the holy Names of God in which Lord Chaitanya’s name is also included as follows in the Mahabharata. The transcendental activities of Lord Chaitanya can be divided into two parts. The first part is called beginning of the adventure and the last part is known as end of the adventure. In the Mahabharat Dan parba chapter. The characteristics of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is described as follows:—(Danparba 149.92.75)
“Lord Chaitanya during the beginning of His adventure will be observed by the following symptoms namely (1) His bodily color like molten gold. (2) Well and strongly built body (3) Golden hue and (4) Decorated with sandal pulp and garlands of flowers. And at the end of His adventure He is to be observed in the renounced order of life ‘Sannyasam’ grave in transcendental thought with a quality of equilibrium, fixed up in the matter of chanting the holy name of Lord and determined to put down the monistic giant in a peaceful movement of religious renaissance.”
It is the strongest desire of the author to emphasize on the point of chanting the holy Name of God as it is repeatedly proclaimed in the Bhagwat that in the age of Kali (the iron age of quarrel and fight) the only effective religiosity is to propagate congregational chanting of the holy Name of God. The exact words are mentioned as follows (Bhag. 11.5.32)
“Intelligent persons (in the age of Kali) do worship the Personality of Godhead who is accompanied by His Personal staff plenary portions, forceful agents and parts of plenary portion and whose color of the body is not like Krishna but He is Krishna Himself garbed as a devotee chanting constantly the holy Name of Krishna.”
Srila Jiva Goswami in his Krama-Sandarbha has annotated this portion as follows:—
“The Personality Who is non-black by His bodily color is worshipped by intelligent persons. This particular mention of non-blackish means yellowish color of the Lord as it is corroberated by the statement of Bhagwat where it is said that the Lord had previously the white, red and yellowish color and now during His appearance as Krishna He has accepted the blackish color. In the Satya and Treta yugas the Lord has appeared in white and red color. In the Dwapara yuga He appeared in the blackish hue and therefore the remaining yellowish color is to be accepted for the Kali-yuga. The above statement clearly establishes the fact that color is changed in terms of the different ages but the Personality is the same. As such Lord Chaitanya is Krishna Himself and not His plenary portion or part of the plenary portion. Shrila Jiva Goswami says ‘Krishna varna’ means two varnas i.e. letters are there. Therefore Krishna Chaitanya means Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is no other than Krishna Himself. He always chants the holy name of Krishna as well as teaches the same Gospel to every one. Vainayati means utters or describes. He does both the things. He utters Himself and describes the same also. And because He is Krishna Himself whoever may meet Him will automatically chant the holy Name of Krishna and later on will describe the same to others. He injects transcendentally the Krishna Consciousness which merges the chanter into transcendental bliss. In all respects therefore He appears before all as Krishna either by Personality or by sound and as such He is confirmed as Krishna. He manifests Himself as Gouda or yellowish as a devotee but Personally He manifests Himself as Krishna. He is The Personality of Godhead with all requisite paraphernalia. From His bodily construction, dress and ornamental decorations He is approved Supreme Lord. His acts are uncommon and His associates are wonderful. That is the necessary condition for being approved as the Supreme Lord. Everywhere either in Bengal or in Orissa specially, He was held with the honour of the Supreme Lord and at home influential and important persons like Adwita Prabhu etc. were His constant servitors. As such He is described in the Mahabharata as the most respectable Personality. He is so approved by such stalwart educationist as Sarvabhouma Bhattacharya who has rightly seen Him. He estimated the identity of Lord Chaitanya as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and appeared Himself to propagate His own devotional service which became covered in course of time. He surrendered himself unto the lotus feet of the Lord as the bees hum over the lotus flower.”
Another authority Shri Valadeva Vidyabhusan has commented that the Golden hue of Lord Chaitanya is confirmed in the Vedas as “yada pashya pashyte rukma varnah kartarameesham purusham brahmayonim.” In this mantram the Supreme Lord is described as having the color of molted Gold. Another meaning of this Golden hue is that His (Lord Chaitanya’s) personality is as much fascinating as the golden color is attractive. He has explained Varanga as exquisitely beautiful. He (Lord Chaitanya) accepted Sannyas leaving aside the householder’s life, in order to preach His mission. He is Sama in different senses. First of all He describes the truth of the Personality of Godhead—secondly He satisfies everyone by the knowledge and other (?) of Krishna which in its turn make one averse to everything which is not related with the service of Krishna. He has explained the word ‘Nistha’ as being fixed up rigidly in the matter of chanting the holy name of Shri Krishna. He subsides all disturbing elements against the devotional service, specifically the monists who are desparetly averse to the personal features of the Supreme Lord.
The author Srila Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami summarizes the above two authoritative statements in the following manner. He vigorously calls for the attention of his readers to understand the meaning of ‘Krishna Varna’ either as he describes the name of Shri Krishna or as he describes Krishna as He is. In both the ways Lord Chaitanya knows nothing except Krishna and He is nothing but Krishna. If somebody explains that He (Shri Chaitanya Deva) is blackish in color, he is checked by the word ‘Twisha Akrishna’ i.e. nonblackish by his bodily hue—which means that He is yellowish in His bodily hue.
There is another authoritative description by Srila Rupa Goswami in his ‘Stabamala’ as follows:—
“Let us be blessed profusely by the mercy of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Who is exquisitely beautiful by His yellowish color and as such He is worshipped by learned scholars in the act of performances of congregational chanting of the holy Name of the Lord as it is prescribed in the scriptures. He is the only worshipful Deity of the 4th order of the renounced mendicants known as the Paramhamsas.”
As it is stated in the Upanishads quoted above only by an overlooking of the golden hue of Lord Chaitanya one can at once dissipate the darkness of ignorance in material existence.
And in order to dissipate such darkness of ignorance of sinful acts by the living being, He has appeared with full force of auxiliaries who acts as various weapons for such annihilating process.
What are these symptoms of ignorance. They are as follows: All activities which are known as good work or bad work, good religion or bad religion or in other words religiosity or non-religiosity all are opposing elements in the path of executing the acts of pure devotion. All of them are known as ‘Kalmasa’ is detremental activities in the transcendental way and all of them must be taken up as acts of ignorance. But Lord Chaitanya focuses His transcendental glance over all with His raised up arms and clarion call of ‘Hari’ resounding in love of Godhead. By such actions of the Lord He overflows every one and all by ocean of pure love of Godhead and dissipates the above mentioned ignorance also.
The same ‘Stabamala’ reaffirms the above statements as follows:—
“Let us be blessed profusely by the mercy of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu whose blooming smile and favorable glances at once drive away all sorts of gloomy atmosphere of the mundane world, whose words at once envigours the sprouting leaves of the all-good plant of devotion, and acceptance of the shelter, of whose lotus feet, does at once bring in the mysterious of transcendental loving affairs upon us without any endeavor.”
Anyone and everyone who happens to look over the all good face of the Lord or the all good body becomes at once freed from all varieties of sinful acts and gains the wonderful transcendental love of God.
In other forms of incarnations the Lord eradicates the disturbing elements in a violent manner with different weapons but in this Form He fights the opposing elements in a peaceful way assisted by His eternal associates who are His plenary and differentiated parts and parcels.
The same Stabamala confirms this statement as follows:—
“Lord Chaitanya is worshipable even by the great gods like Brahma and Shiva. As such He is the only worshipable Deity for all kinds of living being. We should always aspire after the days when He appears Himself in the mood of teaching the mysteries of devotion to His different kinds of devotees?”
The Lord’s plenary parts as well as the differentiated parts do their respective duties but the author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita gives us very kindly another import of the word “Anga” or parts of His Body. Such transcendental parts of the Lord is described in the Bhagwat (10.14.14) as follows:—(See page 46 also)
“Oh my Lord! You are the witness of the worlds. If you are the Super-Soul of every living being, are you not then my directive father? You are Narayana because you are the sustainer of all living beings. Narayana is your plenary portion and all the Purushavatars are also your plenary portions because all of them are transcendental to the influence of material nature the illusory energy.”
The manifold expansions of the Supreme Lord either the Purushas who lie down in the water or the Supersoul who lives within every living being all of them are—plenary portions of the Supreme Lord and therefore He is called the ultimate Narayana. And the parts and parcels which living in another import of the word ‘Anga’ is also accepted as truth because neither of the above explanations are objects material perceptions.
Shri Nityananda Prabhu and Shri Adwaita Prabhu both are plenary parts of the body of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The limbs of the body called parcels of the body. And both these parts and parcels, of the body of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, are acting like sharp instruments meant for defeating the nefarious acts of the ‘Pashandas’ who are against the Supremacy of the Lord, in different categories of atheistic attitude.
Shri Nityananda Prabhu is the same Personality as Haladhar or Valadeva and Shri Adwita Prabhu is exactly the Personality of Vishnu. All of them are assisted by their eternal associates called by the name Shrinivas and others and as such the two Lords (Shri Nityananda and Shri Adwita) are moving about as the Commanders of their soldier devotees. They are meant for defeating the Pashandas or unbelievers in the existence of Personal God. Shri Nityananda Prabhu is known as “Pashandadalambana” while by the clarion call of Adwita-Acharya the Pashandas in the garb of Brahmin and scholars do fly away by fear.
To be more clear the Pashandis are those who consider Vishnu in the equal category of Shiva or other demigods. And the other Pashandis are those who cannot realize the transcendental activities of the Lord but misinterpret such activities as creation of the illusory Maya as they are in the case of ordinary living beings. Vishnu and His devotees Vaishnavas are always alert to defeat this tendency of the Pashanda.
We should not carry on the imperfect conceptions of this material nature to the transcendental Nature unceremoniously. In the material sense everything can be divided in parts and parts of the part and in such distribution of the matter the original form of the matter is annihilated. In the transcendence it is different. In spite of the Absolute Truths becoming many and many, He remains Purna and without any division. The exact example is the lamp. You can burn up as many lamps as you desire, from one original lamp and yet the original lamp’s energy is the same as before, while all the other lamps also which lit up by it—are of the same potency. Similarly Sri Valadeva being directly manifestation of Krishna, there is no difference between Them.
Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Father and inaugurator of the Samkirtan movement and any one who worships Him by the sacrifice of life, money, intelligence and words in the matter of Samkirtan movement he is recognized by the Lord and endowed with His blessings. That person is only intelligent as above mentioned and all others are foolish so to say because of all sacrifices in which a man can apply his energy, The sacrifices made on account of Samkirtan movement is the most glorious. To compare the holy Name of the Lord even with the ceremonial sacrifice called by the name ‘Aswamedha yajna’ a very great expensive job is an offense at the feet of the Lord. Any one doing such offensive performance is at once counted in the category of the Pashandas as explained herein before. Aswamedha yajna or any other such lucrative sacrifices or good work are never to be compared with the chanting of the holy Name. During the solar or lunar eclipse the Shastra enjoins to give in charity cows and other valuable things. Such act of charity during the eclipses by giving away millions of cows or by the act of Kalpa vasa at Prayag during the months of January and February, or by sacrificing a millions other yajnas or by giving away a golden hill—nobody can compare with the performance of Nama Yajna. That is the verdict of all authoritative scriptures.
Srila Jiva Goswami has discussed the following sloka as statement of benediction invoked at the beginning of his Thesis ‘Bhagwat Sandarbha’
Antakrishna bahir goura darshitangardi baibhava bam.
Kalou samkirtanad yai sma krishna chaitanyam ashrita.
Srila Jiva Goswami has mentioned the sloka of Bhagwat namely ‘Krishnavarna’ etc. in the beginning of his Satsandharba and following the same, he has composed his own sloka as above mentioned. This sloka is practically an explanation of the sloka mentioned in the Bhagwat. In the commentation of ‘Satsandarbha’ which is known as ‘Sarbasambadini’, he has explained the sloka in detail. The translation of the sloka is made as follows:—
“Let us take shelter unto the lotus feet of the Lord of the name Shri Krishna Chaitanya who has Krishna within Himself because He is playing roll of Shri Radharani although He is Krishna Himself but as far as his hue of the bodily color is concerned He is in the Form of yellowish color. He is manifested to be accompanied by His parts and parcels”
In some of the upapuranam also it is said to be spoken by Shri Krishna the Personality of Godhead unto Vyasdeva by His causeless mercy. It is said there as follows:—”Oh my learned Brahmin! you may take it from me that sometimes in some particular age of Kali, I do accept the Sannyas order of life, and preach the cult of devotion to fallen people of that age.“
As such Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is evidentially proved to be the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the authoritative statements of Sreemad Bhagwatam such as “Krishna Varna twisa akrishna” “Asau Varna strayo yasya” “Chhanna Kaler” etc., that of Mahabharatas such as “Sambhabami yuge yuge” “Sannyas krit Shamashanta” etc, that of Sruti and Upanishads “Mahaprabhubai Purusha” “yada pasya pasyati rukmanarnam” etc., that in the tantras such as “Mayapure bhavisyama Sachisuta’ and that in the upapuranam such as “Ahamamva” etc. These evidences are most powerful ones to prove the authenticity of Lord Chaitanya.
Apart from all the above scriptural evidences one can visualize his uncommon acts of transcendental power and his transcendental activities in the matter of devotional services. Unfortunately the unbelievers and non-devotees do not like to accept His as such in their dogged obstinacy and blindness to see the truth just like the owl who is unable to tolerate the glaring of sunshine. The author quotes an authoritative statement from the Stotraratna of Albandam Yamunacharya. It is as follows:—”Oh my Lord! everything material is within the boundary of time space and thought. But so far your characteristics are concerned they are transcendental to all such limitations. Although such characteristics are covered by your illusory energy, yet those who are constantly engaged in your service can always observe such transcendental characteristics without any obstruction.
The Lord tries to hide Himself by all means but the power of observation of the pure devotees is so strong that the characteristics of the Lord become revealed to them. But non-devotees are unable to see Him as the owl cannot see the Sun.
In this connection another quotation from Shri Alabandam Yamunacharya is also worth mentioning. It is as follows:—
“Oh my Lord! You can be known only to your pure devotees like Srila Vyasdeva and others who are developed in the mode of goodness and are well versed in the scriptures of that quality as well as by your uncommon transcendental characteristics, Form, activities etc. but persons, who are embibed with faithlessness and are controlled by the qualities of the modes of passion and ignorance, are unable to know your Lordship” (See also page in the II part).
Persons who have developed the nature of an Ashura like Ravan, Hiranyakasipu etc. by challenging the authority of Godhead—can never know Krishna the Personality of Godhead. Just opposite to this Shri Krishna also cannot hide Himself before His pure devotees.
In the Padmapurana the following statement is there in connection with the existence of two kinds of men in the universe called by the name Deva and the Ashuras. Those who are devotees to the Supreme Lord (Vishnu) are called Devas or gods but others who are averse to the existence of the Lord are called the Ashuras or the demons. There is no difference in bodily structure between the demons and demigods but there is a gulf of difference in the quality of their status quo of the mind and activities.
Acharya Gosain is the devotee incarnation of the Lord and whose clarion call for Krishna is the cause of the descent of the Lord.
And it is the routine program during the appearance of the Lord that prior to His advent, He manifests the appearances of His elderly relatives like father and mother who are all His pure devotees. He sends His devotees to become His father, mother, teacher and similar other respectable persons who appear prior to the appearance ot the Lord. As such Srila Madhavendra Puri, Srila Iswara Puri, Srimati Sachidevi, Srila Jagannath Misra, Srila Adwita Prabhu all of them appeared before the appearance of the Lord in the scene.
When Adwita Prabhu appeared before the advent of the Lord, He was astonished to see that the whole world is devoid of devotional cult. The people have no connection with the devotional service of the Lord and everyone was engaged in the matter of gross bodily and subtle mental activities of the material world. Everyone is undergoing the term of his imprisonment as the first class prisoner or the third class prisoner in accordance with their previous actions of vice and virtue, but none of them had the sense of devotional service which alone can mitigate the troubles of material life.
The Acharya Shri Adwita Prabhu was mortified to see such regretable condition of the people in general, empiric philosophers and so called religionists. Naturally He began to ponder over the situation deeply with a view to find out the ways and means for improving such deplorable condition of the world. That sort of serious interest for the welfare of the public makes one bona fide Acharya. The Acharya is not an exploiter of his follower. The heart of the Acharya, as he is a confidential servitor of the Lord, is always compassionate for the suffering of humanity in various ways and as he knows that all such sufferings of humanity are due to the absence of devotional service of the Lord,—he always tries to find out the ways and means of changing the face of such activities making them favorable for attaining the devotional stage. That is the qualification of an Acharya.
As such Shri Adwita Prabhu although He was Himself very powerful to do the work—still submissive servitor as He is—He thought that without the appearance of the Lord personally nobody is able to improve the fallen condition of the society. Under the grim clutches of Maya, the first class prisoners of this material world, do think wrongly that they are happy, they are rich powerful full or resources and what not, although these foolish creatures do not know that they are nothing but playing dolls in the hands of material nature and at any moment the whole plan of their godless activities can be crashed into dust by the material nature’s thankless intriques. Such foolish first class prisoners cannot see that however he might have improved his position by artificial means, he is unable to put his command(?) over his personal repeated birth, death, diseases and old age. These calamities are always beyond his jurisdiction of control. Foolish as he is, he neglects all these major problems of life and remains busy with false things which are unable to solve the real problems of his life. He knows that he does not want death or to suffer the pangs of diseases and old age but he is grossly neglectful to make a solution of them under the influence of illusory energy. That is called Maya. People who are in such grip hold of Maya are thrown into oblivion after their death and it may be that by the result of their own karma they may become in the next life either a dog or a god. Most of them become dogs only and not gods although dog and god is composed of the same letter. Those who are to become gods in the next life they must be engaged in the devotional service of the Supreme Lord or Godhead. Otherwise they are sure to become dogs only or hogs only in terms of the laws of nature. The third class prisoners also do endeavor to imitate the first class prisoners without any information of real improvement. So both ways they are misled by the illusory material nature. It is the function of the Acharyas however that they want to change the activities of both the first class and third class prisoners for real benefit and this endeavor on his part makes him a very dear devotee of the Lord who says clearly in the Bhagwat Geeta that no body in the human society is dearer to him than his devotee who is constantly engaged in the service of the Lord in the way of finding out the ways and means of preaching the message of Godhead for real benefit of the world.
Shri Adwita Prabhu as the ideal Acharya was more concerned to improve the condition of the world situation. The so called Acharyas of the age of Kali are more concerned to exploit the pocket of their followers than to mitigate their miseries.
Shri Adwita Prabhu knew it also that the Lord Shri Krishna cannot descend in the age of Kali as far as routine work is concerned but He thought it also that without the Lord Himself nobody is able to change the position of the world. Therefore He desired that the Lord may Himself and personally come to preach the cult of devotion by His own transcendental activities. Thus He decided to worship the Lord in pure devotional way and to pray constantly before Him with due submissiveness. He promised that He must be able to call the Lord to come and preach the cult of Samkirtan movement otherwise He would disclaim to have possessed the name Adwita or ‘Non-dual.’
The ‘non-dualist’ mayavadi philosophers falsely believes that he is non-different from the Lord but he is unable to call Him like Adwita Prabhu. Adwita Prabhu is non-different from the Lord yet His relation with the Lord is not to merge in Him but to remain eternally the plenary portion of the Lord and render service unto Him. This Aveda Vada is unthinkable by mayavadi. He thinks in terms mundane sense-perceptive way and therefore he thinks that non-dualism means losing ones separate identity. Here Adwita Prabhu remains a separate identity and yet He is nondifferent from the Lord.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu preached this philosophy of inconceivable simultaneously one and different from the Lord. Conceivable dualism or monism are conceptions of the imperfect senses. Such imperfect senses are unable to reach the transcendence. The transcendance [is] beyond the conception of limited potency. Shri Adwita Prabhu is a tangible proof for such inconceivable non-dualism. One who therefore surrenders unto Shri Adwita Prabhu can easily follow the philosophy of inconceivable dualism and monism.
Now He thought out a simple formula to propitiate the Lord as it is enjoined in the Goutamiya Tantra. He remembered the sermen as follows:—
“The Supreme Lord being favourably disposed to His devotees He becomes Himself a sold out friend as it were to His devotees, simply being offered by them a handful of ganges water along with a bunch of Tulsi leaves.”
The Acharya very carefully pondered over this statement and concluded that any poor man can offer this water of the Ganges and tulsi leaves without any difficulty and the Personality of Godhead out of His unbounded causeless mercy becomes so much obliged to the devotee by such offering that He thinks Himself a debtor to His devotee on account of the above offerings and tries to repay it by selling Himself for the service of His devotees. This service is reciprocal. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is said that the Lord reciprocates His service in response to the services offered by His pure devotees. So the Acharya adopted this formula of worshipping the Supreme Lord. He began to offer daily such combination of the Ganges water and Tulsi leaves along with His clarion call for Shri Krishna’s advent. And by such clarion call the Acharya made it possible to descend by Sri Krishna in the Form of Lord Chaitanya. The chief reason of the Lord’s advent is due to this clarion call of the Acharya because by the strong desire of the devotee only—the Lord who is the sustainer of religiosity takes His incarnations at different time. This time the Lord appeared as Lord Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
The statement of “Srimad Bhagwat” (3.9.11) is in comformity of the above. This is as follows: Sri Brahma said “Oh my Lord! You enjoy yourself by remaining always in front of your devotees’ earnest processes of submissive hearing and chanting your holy name. And you do reside in their heart which is always purified by the devotional services. Oh Urugaya (one who is always glorified by excellent prayers) you do very graciously manifest your eternal Form in which your devotee meditates upon you.”
The purport of the above statement of Srimad Bhagwat is that the Lord is always ready to manifest Himself according to the transcendental desire of the devotees. All the different features of the Lord namely Rama, Nrisingha, Varaha etc. are incarnated by the call of the devotee.
Now the explanation of the 4th sloka, out of the 14 slokas of prayers offered by the author is thus explained and it is clearly understood hereby that Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has appeared only for the purpose of diseminating the love of Godhead by the living being so essential in life.
The author as usual ends this part of the book by invoking the Grace of all the six Goswamis beginning from Srila Rupa up to Srila Raghunath Das Goswami and Srila Kaviraj Krsnadas (?) to explain the transcendental activities of the Lord under the shelter of the feet of the above Goswamis.
Thus ends the III part of Essays on Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita of the name ‘The causes that made the incarnation of Lord Chaitanya possible.’