Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Instructs Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī

A summary of this chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. Meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in a village called Rāmakeli, two brothers, Rūpa and Sanātana, began to devise means to get out of their government service. Both brothers appointed some brāhmaṇas to perform puraścaraṇa ceremonies and chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī deposited ten thousand gold coins with a grocer, and the balance he brought in two boats to a place called Bāklā Candradvīpa. There he divided this money among the brāhmaṇas, Vaiṣṇavas and his relatives, and a portion he kept for emergency measures and personal needs. He was informed that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was going to Vṛndāvana from Jagannātha Purī through the forest of Madhya Pradesh; therefore he sent two people to Jagannātha Purī to find out when the Lord would leave for Vṛndāvana. In this way Rūpa Gosvāmī retired, but Sanātana Gosvāmī told the Nawab that he was sick and could not attend to his work. Giving this excuse, he sat home and studied Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with learned brāhmaṇa scholars. The Nawab Hussain Shah first sent his personal physician to see what the real facts were; then he personally came to see why Sanātana was not attending to official business. Knowing that he wanted to resign his post, the Nawab had him arrested and imprisoned. The Nawab then went off to attack Orissa.

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu started for Vṛndāvana through the forest of Madhya Pradesh (Jhārikhaṇḍa), Rūpa Gosvāmī left home and sent news to Sanātana that he was leaving home with his younger brother (Anupama Mallika) to meet Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī finally reached Prayāga and met with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for ten successive days. During this time, Vallabha Bhaṭṭa extended an invitation to the Lord with great respect. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu introduced Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Vallabha Bhaṭṭa. After this, a brāhmaṇa scholar named Raghupati Upādhyāya arrived and discussed Kṛṣṇa consciousness with the Lord. Kavirāja Gosvāmī then extensively describes the living condition of Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana at Vṛndāvana. During the ten days at Prayāga, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was instructed by the Lord, who gave him the basic principles of the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. The Lord then sent Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana. The Lord Himself returned to Vārāṇasī and stayed at the home of Candraśekhara.

Cc. Madhya 19.1
Before the creation of this cosmic manifestation, the Lord enlightened the heart of Lord Brahmā with the details of the creation and manifested the Vedic knowledge. In exactly the same way, the Lord, being anxious to revive the Vṛndāvana pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, impregnated the heart of Rūpa Gosvāmī with spiritual potency. By this potency, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī could revive the activities of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, activities almost lost to memory. In this way, He spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness throughout the world.
Cc. Madhya 19.2
All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of the Lord!
Cc. Madhya 19.3
After meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the village of Rāmakeli, the brothers Rūpa and Sanātana returned to their homes.
Cc. Madhya 19.4
The two brothers devised a means whereby they could give up their material activities. For this purpose, they appointed two brāhmaṇas and paid them a large amount of money.
Cc. Madhya 19.5
The brāhmaṇas performed religious ceremonies and chanted the holy name of Kṛṣṇa so that the two brothers might attain shelter at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very soon.
Cc. Madhya 19.6
At this time, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī returned home, taking with him large quantities of riches loaded in boats.
Cc. Madhya 19.7
Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī divided the wealth that he brought back home. He gave fifty percent in charity to brāhmaṇas and Vaiṣṇavas and twenty-five percent to his relatives.
Cc. Madhya 19.8
He kept one-fourth of his wealth with a respectable brāhmaṇa. He kept this for his personal safety because he was expecting some legal complications.
Cc. Madhya 19.9
He deposited ten thousand coins, which were later spent by Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, in the custody of a local Bengali grocer.
Cc. Madhya 19.10
Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī heard that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had returned to Jagannātha Purī and was preparing to go to Vṛndāvana through the forest.
Cc. Madhya 19.11
Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī sent two people to Jagannātha Purī to find out when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would depart for Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.12
Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī told the two men, “You are to return quickly and let me know when He will depart. Then I shall make the proper arrangements.”
Cc. Madhya 19.13
While Sanātana Gosvāmī was at Gauḍa-deśa, he was thinking, “The Nawab is very pleased with me. I certainly have an obligation.
Cc. Madhya 19.14
“Somehow or other, if the Nawab becomes angry with me, I shall be greatly relieved. That is my conclusion.”
Cc. Madhya 19.15
On the pretext of bad health, Sanātana Gosvāmī remained home. Thus he gave up government service and did not go to the royal court.
Cc. Madhya 19.16
The greedy masters of his clerical and secretarial staff performed the government duties while Sanātana personally remained home and discussed revealed scriptures.
Cc. Madhya 19.17
Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī used to discuss Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in an assembly of twenty or thirty learned brāhmaṇa scholars.
Cc. Madhya 19.18
While Sanātana Gosvāmī was studying Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in the assembly of learned brāhmaṇas, one day the Nawab of Bengal and another person suddenly appeared.
Cc. Madhya 19.19
As soon as all the brāhmaṇas and Sanātana Gosvāmī saw the Nawab appear, they all stood up and respectfully gave him a sitting place to honor him.
Cc. Madhya 19.20
The Nawab said, “I sent my physician to you, and he has reported that you are not diseased. As far as he could see, you are completely healthy.
Cc. Madhya 19.21
“I am depending on you to carry out so many of my activities, but you have given up your governmental duties to sit here at home.
Cc. Madhya 19.22
“You have spoiled all my activities. What is your intention? Please tell me frankly.”
Cc. Madhya 19.23
Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “You can no longer expect any service from me. Please arrange for someone else to tend to the management.”
Cc. Madhya 19.24
Becoming angry with Sanātana Gosvāmī, the Nawab said, “Your elder brother is acting just like a plunderer.
Cc. Madhya 19.25
“By killing many living entities, your elder brother has destroyed all Bengal. Now here you are destroying all my plans.”
Cc. Madhya 19.26
Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “You are the supreme ruler of Bengal and are completely independent. Whenever someone commits a fault, you punish him accordingly.”
Cc. Madhya 19.27
Hearing this, the Nawab of Bengal stood up and returned to his home. He ordered the arrest of Sanātana Gosvāmī so that he would not be able to leave.
Cc. Madhya 19.28
At this time, the Nawab was going to attack the province of Orissa, and he told Sanātana Gosvāmī, “Come along with me.”
Cc. Madhya 19.29
Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “You are going to Orissa to give pain to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this reason I am powerless to go with you.”
Cc. Madhya 19.30
The Nawab again arrested Sanātana Gosvāmī and kept him in prison. At this time, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu departed for Vṛndāvana from Jagannātha Purī.
Cc. Madhya 19.31
The two persons who went to Jagannātha Purī to inquire about the Lord’s departure returned and informed Rūpa Gosvāmī that the Lord had already departed for Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.32
Upon receiving this message from his two messengers, Rūpa Gosvāmī immediately wrote a letter to Sanātana Gosvāmī saying that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had departed for Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.33
In his letter to Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī wrote, “We two brothers are starting out to go see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. You must also somehow or other get released and come meet us.”
Cc. Madhya 19.34
Rūpa Gosvāmī further informed Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī: “I have left a deposit of ten thousand coins with the grocer. Use that money to get out of prison.
Cc. Madhya 19.35
“Somehow or other get yourself released and come to Vṛndāvana.” After writing this, the two brothers [Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama] went to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.36
Rūpa Gosvāmī’s younger brother was a great devotee whose actual name was Śrī Vallabha, but he was given the name Anupama Mallika.
Cc. Madhya 19.37
Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama Mallika went to Prayāga, and they were very pleased to hear news that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was there.
Cc. Madhya 19.38
At Prayāga, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see the temple of Bindu Mādhava, and many hundreds of thousands of people followed Him just to meet Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.39
Some of the people following the Lord were crying. Some were laughing, some dancing and some chanting. Indeed, some of them were rolling on the ground, exclaiming, “Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa!”
Cc. Madhya 19.40
Prayāga is located at the confluence of two rivers—the Ganges and the Yamunā. Although these rivers were not able to flood Prayāga with water, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu inundated the whole area with waves of ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.41
Seeing the great crowd, the two brothers remained standing in a secluded place. They could see that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was ecstatic to see Lord Bindu Mādhava.
Cc. Madhya 19.42
The Lord was loudly chanting the holy name of Hari. Dancing in ecstatic love and raising His arms, He asked everyone to chant “Hari! Hari!”
Cc. Madhya 19.43
Everyone was astounded to see the greatness of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Indeed, I cannot properly describe the pastimes of the Lord at Prayāga.
Cc. Madhya 19.44
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had made an acquaintance with a brāhmaṇa from Deccan [in South India], and that brāhmaṇa invited Him for meals and took Him to his place.
Cc. Madhya 19.45
While Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was sitting in a solitary place in the home of that Deccan brāhmaṇa, Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha [Anupama Mallika] came to meet Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.46
Seeing the Lord from a distance, the two brothers put two clumps of straw between their teeth and immediately fell down on the ground like rods, offering Him obeisances.
Cc. Madhya 19.47
Both brothers were overwhelmed with ecstatic emotion, and reciting various Sanskrit verses, they stood up and fell down again and again.
Cc. Madhya 19.48
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased to see Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, and He told him, “Stand up! Stand up! My dear Rūpa, come here.”
Cc. Madhya 19.49
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “It is not possible to describe Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, for He has delivered you both from the well of material enjoyment.
Cc. Madhya 19.50
” ‘Even though a person is a very learned scholar of the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless he is pure in devotional service. Even though a person is born in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activities or mental speculation. Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.’ ”
Cc. Madhya 19.51
After reciting this verse, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced both brothers, and out of His causeless mercy He placed His feet on their heads.
Cc. Madhya 19.52
After receiving the Lord’s causeless mercy, the brothers folded their hands and in great humility offered the following prayers unto the Lord.
Cc. Madhya 19.53
“O most munificent incarnation! You are Kṛṣṇa Himself appearing as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu. You have assumed the golden color of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and You are widely distributing pure love of Kṛṣṇa. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.
Cc. Madhya 19.54
“We offer our respectful obeisances unto that merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead who has converted all three worlds, which were maddened by ignorance, and saved them from their diseased condition by making them mad with the nectar from the treasure-house of love of God. Let us take full shelter of that Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, whose activities are wonderful.”
Cc. Madhya 19.55
After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu sat them down by His side and asked them, “What news do you have of Sanātana?”
Cc. Madhya 19.56
Rūpa Gosvāmī replied, “Sanātana has now been arrested by the government of Hussain Shah. If You kindly save him, he can be liberated from that entanglement.”
Cc. Madhya 19.57
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately replied, “Sanātana has already been released from his confinement, and he will very soon meet with Me.”
Cc. Madhya 19.58
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was then requested by the brāhmaṇa to accept His lunch. Rūpa Gosvāmī also remained there that day.
Cc. Madhya 19.59
Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya invited the two brothers to take lunch also. The remnants of food from the plate of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu were offered to them.
Cc. Madhya 19.60
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu selected His residence beside the confluence of the Ganges and Yamunā at a place called Triveṇī. The two brothers-Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha-selected their residence near the Lord’s.
Cc. Madhya 19.61
At that time, Śrī Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was staying at Āḍāila-grāma, and when he heard that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had arrived, he went to His place to see Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.62
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya offered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu his obeisances, and the Lord embraced him. After that, they discussed topics about Kṛṣṇa for some time.
Cc. Madhya 19.63
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt great ecstatic love when they began discussing Kṛṣṇa, but the Lord checked His feelings because He felt shy before Vallabha Bhaṭṭa.
Cc. Madhya 19.64
Although the Lord restrained Himself externally, ecstatic love raged within. There was no checking that. Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was astonished to detect this.
Cc. Madhya 19.65
Thereafter, Vallabha Bhaṭṭa invited Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for lunch, and the Lord introduced the brothers Rūpa and Vallabha to him.
Cc. Madhya 19.66
From a distance, the brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha fell on the ground and offered obeisances to Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with great humility.
Cc. Madhya 19.67
When Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya walked toward them, they ran away to a more distant place. Rūpa Gosvāmī said, “I am untouchable and most sinful. Please do not touch me.”
Cc. Madhya 19.68
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was very surprised at this. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, however, was very pleased, and He therefore spoke to him this description of Rūpa Gosvāmī.
Cc. Madhya 19.69
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Don’t touch him, for he belongs to a very low caste. You are a follower of Vedic principles and are a well experienced performer of many sacrifices. You also belong to the aristocracy.”
Cc. Madhya 19.70
Hearing the holy name constantly vibrated by the two brothers, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya could understand the hints of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.71
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya admitted, “Since these two are constantly chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, how can they be untouchable? On the contrary, they are most exalted.”
Cc. Madhya 19.72
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya then recited the following verse: ” ‘My dear Lord, one who always keeps Your holy name on his tongue becomes greater than an initiated brāhmaṇa. Although he may be born in a family of dog-eaters and may therefore, by material calculation, be the lowest among men, he is still glorious. This is the wonderful effect of chanting the holy name of the Lord. It is therefore concluded that one who chants the holy name of the Lord should be understood to have performed all kinds of austerities and great sacrifices mentioned in the Vedas. He has already taken his bath in all the holy places of pilgrimage. He has studied all the Vedas, and he is actually an Āryan.’ ”
Cc. Madhya 19.73
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased to hear Vallabha Bhaṭṭa quoting from śāstra about the position of a devotee. The Lord praised him personally, and, feeling ecstatic love of Godhead, began to quote many verses from śāstra.
Cc. Madhya 19.74
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, ” ‘A person who has the pure characteristics of a brāhmaṇa due to devotional service, which is like a blazing fire burning to ashes all the sinful reactions of past lives, is certainly saved from the consequences of sinful acts, such as taking birth in a lower family. Even though he may be born in a family of dog-eaters, he is recognized by learned scholars. However, although a person may be a learned scholar in Vedic knowledge, he is not recognized if he is an atheist.
Cc. Madhya 19.75
” ‘For a person devoid of devotional service, birth in a great family or nation, knowledge of revealed scripture, performance of austerities and penance, and chanting of Vedic mantras are all like ornaments on a dead body. Such ornaments simply serve the concocted pleasures of the general populace.’ ”
Cc. Madhya 19.76
When he saw the Lord’s ecstatic love, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was certainly very astonished. He was also astonished by the Lord’s knowledge of the essence of devotional service, as well as by His personal beauty and influence.
Cc. Madhya 19.77
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya then put Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates aboard a boat and took them to his own place to offer them lunch.
Cc. Madhya 19.78
While crossing the River Yamunā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw the glossy black water and was immediately bewildered with ecstatic love.
Cc. Madhya 19.79
Indeed, as soon as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw the River Yamunā, He immediately made a great sound and jumped into the water. Everyone was filled with fear and trembling to see this.
Cc. Madhya 19.80
They all hastily grabbed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and pulled Him out of the water. Once on the boat’s platform, the Lord began to dance.
Cc. Madhya 19.81
Due to the Lord’s heavy weight, the boat began to tilt. It began filling up with water and was on the verge of sinking.
Cc. Madhya 19.82
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu tried to restrain Himself as far as possible before Vallabhācārya, but although He tried to keep calm, His ecstatic love could not be checked.
Cc. Madhya 19.83
Seeing the circumstances, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu finally became calm so that the boat was able to reach the shore of Āḍāila and land there.
Cc. Madhya 19.84
Fearing for the Lord’s welfare, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya stayed in His association. After arranging for the Lord’s bath, he took Him to his own house.
Cc. Madhya 19.85
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at his home, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya, being greatly pleased, offered the Lord a nice sitting place and personally washed His feet.
Cc. Madhya 19.86
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya and his whole family then sprinkled that water over their heads. They then offered the Lord new underwear and outer garments.
Cc. Madhya 19.87
Vallabhācārya worshiped the Lord with great pomp, offering scents, incense, flowers and lamps, and with great respect he induced Balabhadra Bhaṭṭa [the Lord’s cook] to cook.
Cc. Madhya 19.88
Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was offered lunch with great care and affection. The brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha were also offered food.
Cc. Madhya 19.89
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya first offered the remnants of the Lord’s food to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and then to Kṛṣṇadāsa.
Cc. Madhya 19.90
The Lord was then given spices to purify His mouth. Afterwards He was made to rest, and Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya personally massaged His legs.
Cc. Madhya 19.91
While Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was massaging Him, the Lord asked him to go take prasāda. After taking prasāda, he returned to the lotus feet of the Lord.
Cc. Madhya 19.92
At that time there arrived Raghupati Upādhyāya, who belonged to the Tiruhitā district. He was a very learned scholar, a great devotee and a respectable gentleman.
Cc. Madhya 19.93
Raghupati Upādhyāya first offered his respects to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and the Lord gave him His blessings, saying, “Always stay in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.”
Cc. Madhya 19.94
Raghupati Upādhyāya was very pleased to hear the Lord’s blessings. The Lord then asked him to describe Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.95
When Raghupati Upādhyāya was requested to describe Kṛṣṇa, he began to recite some verses he had personally composed about Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Hearing those verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.
Cc. Madhya 19.96
Raghupati Upādhyāya recited: “Those who are afraid of material existence worship Vedic literature. Some worship smṛti, the corollaries to Vedic literature, and others worship the Mahābhārata. As far as I am concerned, I worship Mahārāja Nanda, the father of Kṛṣṇa, in whose courtyard the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is playing.”
Cc. Madhya 19.97
When Raghupati Upādhyāya was requested by the Lord to recite more, he immediately offered his respects to the Lord and granted His request.
Cc. Madhya 19.98
“To whom can I speak who will believe me when I say that Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is hunting the gopīs in the bushes by the banks of the River Yamunā? In this way the Lord demonstrates His pastimes.”
Cc. Madhya 19.99
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested Raghupati Upādhyāya to continue speaking about the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Thus the Lord was absorbed in ecstatic love, and His mind and body slackened.
Cc. Madhya 19.100
When Raghupati Upādhyāya saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s ecstatic symptoms, he decided that the Lord was not a human being but Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Cc. Madhya 19.101
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Raghupati Upādhyāya, “According to your decision, who is the foremost being?” Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “Lord Śyāmasundara is the supreme form.”
Cc. Madhya 19.102
“Of all Kṛṣṇa’s abodes, which do you think is the best?” Raghupati Upādhyāya said, “Madhu-purī, or Mathurā-dhāma, is certainly the best.”
Cc. Madhya 19.103
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Of the three ages of Kṛṣṇa known as childhood, boyhood and fresh youth, which do you consider best?” Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “Fresh youth is the best age.”
Cc. Madhya 19.104
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Among all the mellows, which do you consider best?” Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “The mellow of conjugal love is supermost.”
Cc. Madhya 19.105
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “You have certainly given first-class conclusions.” After saying this, He began to recite the full verse with a faltering voice.
Cc. Madhya 19.106
“ ‘The form of Śyāmasundara is the supreme form, the city of Mathurā is the supreme abode, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s fresh youth should always be meditated upon, and the mellow of conjugal love is the supreme mellow.’ ”
Cc. Madhya 19.107
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then embraced Raghupati Upādhyāya in ecstatic love. Raghupati Upādhyāya also was overwhelmed by love, and he began to dance.
Cc. Madhya 19.108
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was struck with wonder to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Raghupati Upādhyāya dance. He even brought forward his two sons and made them fall down at the Lord’s lotus feet.
Cc. Madhya 19.109
Upon hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had arrived, all the villagers went to see Him. Simply by seeing Him, they all became devotees of Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.110
All the brāhmaṇas of the village were anxious to extend invitations to the Lord, but Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya forbade them to do so.
Cc. Madhya 19.111
Vallabha Bhaṭṭa then decided not to keep Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Āḍāila because the Lord had jumped into the River Yamunā in ecstatic love. Therefore he decided to bring Him to Prayāga.
Cc. Madhya 19.112
Vallabha Bhaṭṭa said, “If anyone likes, he can go to Prayāga and extend invitations to the Lord.” In this way he took the Lord with him and departed for Prayāga.
Cc. Madhya 19.113
Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya avoided the River Yamunā. Putting the Lord on a boat in the River Ganges, he went with Him to Prayāga.
Cc. Madhya 19.114
Due to the great crowds in Prayāga, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to a place called Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa. It was there that the Lord instructed Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and empowered him in the philosophy of devotional service.
Cc. Madhya 19.115
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Kṛṣṇa, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, consummating in conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Finally He told Rūpa Gosvāmī about the ultimate conclusions of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Cc. Madhya 19.116
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught Rūpa Gosvāmī all the conclusions He had heard from Rāmānanda Rāya and duly empowered him so that he could understand them.
Cc. Madhya 19.117
By entering the heart of Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu empowered him to ascertain properly the conclusions of all truths. He made him an experienced devotee whose decisions correctly agreed with the verdicts of the disciplic succession. Thus Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī was personally empowered by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.118
In his book Caitanya-candrodaya, Kavi-karṇapūra, the son of Śivānanda Sena, has elaborately described the meeting between Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.119
“In the course of time, the transcendental news of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vṛndāvana was almost lost. To enunciate explicitly those transcendental pastimes, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, at Prayāga, empowered Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī with the nectar of His mercy to carry out this work in Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.120
“From the very beginning, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was deeply attracted by the transcendental qualities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Thus he was permanently relieved from family life. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and his younger brother, Vallabha, were blessed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Although the Lord was transcendentally situated in His transcendental eternal form, at Prayāga He told Rūpa Gosvāmī about transcendental ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa. The Lord then embraced him very fondly and bestowed all His mercy upon him.
Cc. Madhya 19.121
“Indeed, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, whose dear friend was Svarūpa Dāmodara, was the exact replica of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and he was very, very dear to the Lord. Being the embodiment of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s ecstatic love, Rūpa Gosvāmī was naturally very beautiful. He very carefully followed the principles enunciated by the Lord, and he was a competent person to explain properly the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu expanded His mercy to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī just so he could render service by writing transcendental literatures.”
Cc. Madhya 19.122
The characteristics of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī have thus been described in various places by the poet Kavi-karṇapūra. An account has also been given of how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bestowed His causeless mercy upon Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī.
Cc. Madhya 19.123
Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī were the objects of love and honor for all the great stalwart devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.124
If someone returned to his country after seeing Vṛndāvana, the associates of the Lord would ask him questions.
Cc. Madhya 19.125
They would ask those returning from Vṛndāvana, “How are Rūpa and Sanātana doing in Vṛndāvana? What are their activities in the renounced order? How do they manage to eat?” These were the questions asked.
Cc. Madhya 19.126
The Lord’s associates would also ask, “How is it that Rūpa and Sanātana are engaging in devotional service twenty-four hours daily?” At that time the person who had returned from Vṛndāvana would praise Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmī.
Cc. Madhya 19.127
“The brothers actually have no fixed residence. They reside beneath trees-one night under one tree and the next night under another.
Cc. Madhya 19.128
“Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmī beg a little food from the houses of brāhmaṇas. Giving up all kinds of material enjoyment, they only take some dry bread and fried chick-peas.
Cc. Madhya 19.129
“They carry only waterpots, and they wear torn quilts. They always chant the holy names of Kṛṣṇa and discuss His pastimes. In great jubilation, they also dance.
Cc. Madhya 19.130
“They engage almost twenty-four hours daily in rendering service to the Lord. They usually sleep only an hour and a half, and some days, when they continuously chant the Lord’s holy name, they do not sleep at all.
Cc. Madhya 19.131
“Sometimes they write transcendental literatures about devotional service, and sometimes they hear about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and spend their time thinking about the Lord.”
Cc. Madhya 19.132
When the personal associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would hear of the activities of Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs, they would say, “What is wonderful for a person who has been granted the Lord’s mercy?”
Cc. Madhya 19.133
Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has personally spoken about the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in his auspicious introduction to his book Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu [1.1.2].
Cc. Madhya 19.134
“Although I am the lowest of men and have no knowledge, the inspiration to write transcendental literatures about devotional service has been mercifully bestowed upon me. Therefore I am offering my obeisances at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has given me the chance to write these books.”
Cc. Madhya 19.135
For ten days Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed at Prayāga and instructed Rūpa Gosvāmī, empowering him with the necessary potency.
Cc. Madhya 19.136
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Rūpa, please listen to Me. It is not possible to describe devotional service completely; therefore I am just trying to give you a synopsis of the symptoms of devotional service.
Cc. Madhya 19.137
“The ocean of the transcendental mellow of devotional service is so big that no one can estimate its length and breadth. However, just to help you taste it, I am describing but one drop.
Cc. Madhya 19.138
“In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8,400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe.
Cc. Madhya 19.139
“The length and breadth of the living entity is described as one tenthousandth part of the tip of a hair. This is the original subtle nature of the living entity.
Cc. Madhya 19.140
” ‘If we divide the tip of a hair into a hundred parts and then take one of these parts and divide it again into a hundred parts, that very fine division is the size of but one of the numberless living entities. They are all cit-kaṇa, particles of spirit, not matter.’
Cc. Madhya 19.141
” ‘If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. This is the verdict of the chief Vedic mantras.’
Cc. Madhya 19.142
” ‘Among minute particles, I am the living entity.’
Cc. Madhya 19.143
” ‘O Lord, although the living entities who have accepted material bodies are spiritual and unlimited in number, if they were all-pervading there would be no question of their being under Your control. If they are accepted, however, as particles of the eternally existing spiritual entity-as part of You, who are the supreme spirit whole-we must conclude that they are always under Your control. If the living entities are simply satisfied with being identical with You as spiritual particles, then they will be happy being controllers of so many things. The conclusion that the living entities and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are one and the same is a faulty conclusion. It is not a fact.’
Cc. Madhya 19.144
“The unlimited living entities can be divided into two divisions—those that can move and those that cannot move. Among living entities that can move, there are birds, aquatics and animals.
Cc. Madhya 19.145
“Although the living entities known as human beings are very small in quantity, that division may be still further subdivided, for there are many uncultured human beings like mlecchas, pulindas, bauddhas and śabaras.
Cc. Madhya 19.146
“Among human beings, those who are followers of the Vedic principles are considered civilized. Among these, almost half simply give lip service while committing all kinds of sinful activities against these principles. Such people do not care for the regulative principles.
Cc. Madhya 19.147
“Among the followers of Vedic knowledge, most are following the process of fruitive activity and distinguishing between good and bad work. Out of many such sincere fruitive actors, there may be one who is actually wise.
Cc. Madhya 19.148
“Out of many millions of such wise men, one may actually become liberated [mukta], and out of many millions of such liberated persons, a pure devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa is very difficult to find.
Cc. Madhya 19.149
“Because a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa is desireless, he is peaceful. Fruitive workers desire material enjoyment, jñānīs desire liberation, and yogīs desire material opulence; therefore they are all lusty and cannot be peaceful.
Cc. Madhya 19.150
” ‘O great sage, out of many millions of materially liberated people who are free from ignorance, and out of many millions of siddhas who have nearly attained perfection, there is hardly one pure devotee of Nārāyaṇa. Only such a devotee is actually completely satisfied and peaceful.’
Cc. Madhya 19.151
“According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. By the mercy of both Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.
Cc. Madhya 19.152
“When a person receives the seed of devotional service, he should take care of it by becoming a gardener and sowing the seed in his heart. If he waters the seed gradually by the process of śravaṇa and kīrtana [hearing and chanting], the seed will begin to sprout.
Cc. Madhya 19.153
“As one waters the bhakti-latā-bīja, the seed sprouts, and the creeper gradually increases to the point where it penetrates the walls of this universe and goes beyond the Virajā River between the spiritual world and the material world. It attains brahma-loka, the Brahman effulgence, and, penetrating through that stratum, it reaches the spiritual sky and the spiritual planet Goloka Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.154
“Being situated in one’s heart and being watered by śravaṇa-kīrtana, the bhakti creeper grows more and more. In this way it attains the shelter of the desire tree of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally situated in the planet known as Goloka Vṛndāvana in the topmost region of the spiritual sky.
Cc. Madhya 19.155
“The creeper greatly expands in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet, and there it produces the fruit of love for Kṛṣṇa. Although remaining in the material world, the gardener regularly sprinkles the creeper with the water of hearing and chanting.
Cc. Madhya 19.156
“If the devotee commits an offense at the feet of a Vaiṣṇava while cultivating the creeper of devotional service in the material world, his offense is compared to a mad elephant that uproots the creeper and breaks it. In this way the leaves of the creeper are dried up.
Cc. Madhya 19.157
“The gardener must defend the creeper by fencing it all around so that the powerful elephant of offenses may not enter.
Cc. Madhya 19.158
“Sometimes unwanted creepers, such as the creepers of desires for material enjoyment and liberation from the material world, grow along with the creeper of devotional service. The varieties of such unwanted creepers are unlimited.
Cc. Madhya 19.159
“Some unnecessary creepers growing with the bhakti creeper are the creepers of behavior unacceptable for those trying to attain perfection, diplomatic behavior, animal killing, mundane profiteering, mundane adoration and mundane importance. All these are unwanted creepers.
Cc. Madhya 19.160
“If one does not distinguish between the bhakti-latā creeper and the other creepers, the sprinkling of water is misused because the other creepers are nourished while the bhakti-latā creeper is curtailed.
Cc. Madhya 19.161
“As soon as an intelligent devotee sees an unwanted creeper growing beside the original creeper, he must cut it down instantly. Then the real creeper of bhakti-latā-bīja grows nicely, returns home, back to Godhead, and seeks shelter under the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.162
“When the fruit of devotional service becomes ripe and falls down, the gardener tastes the fruit and thus takes advantage of the creeper and reaches the desire tree of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa in Goloka Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.163
“There the devotee serves the lotus feet of the Lord, which are compared to a wish-fulfilling tree. With great bliss he tastes the juice of the fruit of love and becomes eternally happy.
Cc. Madhya 19.164
“To taste the fruit of devotional service at Goloka Vṛndāvana is the highest perfection of life, and in the presence of such perfection, the four material perfections-religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation-are very insignificant achievements.
Cc. Madhya 19.165
“As long as there is not the slightest fragrance of pure love of Kṛṣṇa, which is the perfected medicinal herb for controlling Lord Kṛṣṇa within the heart, the opulences of material perfection-known as the siddhis, the brahminical perfections [satya, śama, titikṣā and so on], the trance of the yogīs and the monistic bliss of Brahman-all seem wonderful for men.
Cc. Madhya 19.166
“When one is situated in pure devotional service, he develops love of Godhead; therefore let me describe some of the symptoms of pure devotional service.
Cc. Madhya 19.167
“When first-class devotional service develops, one must be devoid of all material desires, knowledge obtained by monistic philosophy, and fruitive action. The devotee must constantly serve Kṛṣṇa favorably, as Kṛṣṇa desires.
Cc. Madhya 19.168
“A pure devotee must not cherish any other desire than to serve Kṛṣṇa. He should not offer worship to the demigods or to mundane personalities. He should not cultivate artificial knowledge, which is devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and he should not engage himself in anything other than Kṛṣṇa conscious activities. One must engage all one’s purified senses in the service of the Lord. This is the favorable execution of Kṛṣṇa conscious activities.
Cc. Madhya 19.169
“These activities are called śuddha-bhakti, pure devotional service. If one renders such pure devotional service, he develops his original love for Kṛṣṇa in due course of time. In Vedic literatures like the Pañcarātras and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, these symptoms are described.
Cc. Madhya 19.170
” ‘Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and, simply by being employed in the service of the Lord, one’s senses are purified.’
Cc. Madhya 19.171
” ‘Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me. I reside in the hearts of all.
Cc. Madhya 19.172
” ‘These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Puruṣottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way.
Cc. Madhya 19.173
” ‘My devotees do not accept sālokya, sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya or oneness with Me-even if I offer these liberations-in preference to serving Me.
Cc. Madhya 19.174
” ‘Bhakti-yoga, as described above, is the ultimate goal of life. By rendering devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one transcends the modes of material nature and attains the spiritual position on the platform of direct devotional service’
Cc. Madhya 19.175
“If one is infected with the desire for material enjoyment or material liberation, he cannot rise to the platform of pure loving service unto the Lord, even though he may superficially render devotional service according to the routine regulative principles.
Cc. Madhya 19.176
“The material desire to enjoy the material world and the desire to become liberated from material bondage are considered to be two witches, and they haunt one like ghosts. As long as these witches remain within the heart, how can one feel transcendental bliss? As long as these two witches remain in the heart, there is no possibility of enjoying the transcendental bliss of devotional service.
Cc. Madhya 19.177
“By regularly rendering devotional service, one gradually becomes attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When that attachment is intensified, it becomes love of Godhead.
Cc. Madhya 19.178
“The basic aspects of prema, when gradually increasing to different states, are affection, abhorrence, love, attachment, further attachment, ecstasy and great ecstasy.
Cc. Madhya 19.179
“The gradual development of love may be compared to different states of sugar. First there is the seed of the sugarcane, then sugarcane and then the juice extracted from the cane. When this juice is boiled, it forms a liquid molasses, then a solid molasses, then sugar, candy, rock candy and finally lozenges.
Cc. Madhya 19.180
“All these stages combined are called sthāyibhāva, or continuous love of Godhead in devotional service. In addition to these stages, there are vibhāva and anubhāva.
Cc. Madhya 19.181
“When the higher standard of ecstatic love is mixed with the symptoms of sāttvika and vyabhicārī, the devotee relishes the transcendental bliss of loving Kṛṣṇa in a variety of nectarean tastes.
Cc. Madhya 19.182
“These tastes are like a combination of yogurt, sugar candy, ghee [clarified butter], black pepper and camphor and are as palatable as sweet nectar.
Cc. Madhya 19.183-184
“According to the devotee, attachment falls within the five categories of śānta-rati, dāsya-rati, sakhya-rati, vātsalya-rati and madhura-rati. These five categories arise from the devotees’ different attachments to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The transcendental mellows derived from devotional service are also of five varieties.
Cc. Madhya 19.185
“The chief transcendental mellows experienced with the Supreme Personality of Godhead are five-śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and madhura.
Cc. Madhya 19.186
“Besides the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.
Cc. Madhya 19.187
“In addition to the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.
Cc. Madhya 19.188
“The five direct transcendental mellows of devotional service are permanently situated in the heart of the devotee, whereas the seven indirect emotions appear suddenly under certain conditions and appear more powerful.
Cc. Madhya 19.189
“Examples of śānta-bhaktas are the nine Yogendras and the four Kumāras. Examples of devotees in dāsya-bhakti are innumerable, for such devotees exist everywhere.
Cc. Madhya 19.190
“In Vṛndāvana, examples of devotees in fraternity are Śrīdāmā and Sudāmā; in Dvārakā the Lord’s friends are Bhīma and Arjuna; in Vṛndāvana the devotees in parental love are mother Yaśodā and father Nanda Mahārāja, and in Dvārakā the Lord’s parents are Vasudeva and Devakī. There are also other superior persons who are devotees in parental love.
Cc. Madhya 19.191
“The chief devotees in conjugal love are the gopīs in Vṛndāvana, the queens in Dvārakā and the goddesses of fortune in Vaikuṇṭha. These devotees are innumerable.
Cc. Madhya 19.192
“Attachment for Kṛṣṇa is divided into two categories. One is attachment with awe and reverence, and the other is pure attachment without reverence.
Cc. Madhya 19.193
“Pure attachment without reverence is found in Goloka Vṛndāvana. Attachment in which awe and reverence are prominent is found in the two cities Mathurā and Dvārakā and in Vaikuṇṭha.
Cc. Madhya 19.194
“When opulence is very prominent, love of Godhead is somewhat crippled. According to kevalā devotion, however, even though the devotee sees the unlimited potency of Kṛṣṇa, he considers himself equal with Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.195
“On the transcendental platform of neutrality and service, sometimes the opulence of the Lord is prominent. However, in the transcendental mellows of fraternal, paternal and conjugal love, the opulence is minimized.
Cc. Madhya 19.196
“When Kṛṣṇa offered prayers at the lotus feet of His mother and father, Vasudeva and Devakī, they both felt awe, reverence and fear due to knowledge of His opulences.
Cc. Madhya 19.197
” ‘When Devakī and Vasudeva understood that their two sons Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, who had paid obeisances to them, were the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they became fearful and did not embrace Them.’
Cc. Madhya 19.198
“When Kṛṣṇa manifested His universal form, Arjuna became reverent and fearful, and he begged forgiveness for his past impudence toward Kṛṣṇa as a friend.
Cc. Madhya 19.199-200
” ‘I have in the past addressed You as “O Kṛṣṇa,” “O Yādava,” “O my friend” without knowing Your glories. Please forgive whatever I have done in madness or in love. I have dishonored You many times while we were relaxing, lying on the same bed or eating together, sometimes alone and sometimes in front of many friends. Please excuse me for all my offenses.’
Cc. Madhya 19.201
“Although Kṛṣṇa was joking with Queen Rukmiṇī, she was thinking that He was going to give up her company, and she was therefore shocked.
Cc. Madhya 19.202
” ‘While Kṛṣṇa was joking with Rukmiṇī in Dvārakā, she was full of distress, fear and lamentation. She had also lost her intelligence. She dropped her hand bangles and the fan she was using to fan the Lord. Her hair became disarrayed, and she fainted and fell suddenly, appearing like a banana tree knocked down by high winds.’
Cc. Madhya 19.203
“In the stage of kevalā [unalloyed devotion] a devotee does not consider the unlimited opulence of Kṛṣṇa, even though he experiences it. He takes seriously only his own relationship with Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.204
” ‘When mother Yaśodā saw all the universes within Kṛṣṇa’s mouth, she was astonished for the time being. The Lord is worshiped like Indra and other demigods by the followers of the three Vedas, who offer Him sacrifices. He is worshiped as impersonal Brahman by saintly persons who understand His greatness through studying the Upaniṣads, as the puruṣa by great philosophers who analytically study the universe, as the all-pervading Supersoul by great yogīs, and as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotees. Nevertheless, mother Yaśodā considered the Lord her own son.’
Cc. Madhya 19.205
” ‘Although Kṛṣṇa is beyond sense perception and is unmanifest to human beings, he takes up the guise of a human being with a material body. Thus mother Yaśodā thought Him to be her son, and she bound Lord Kṛṣṇa with rope to a wooden mortar, as if He were an ordinary child.’
Cc. Madhya 19.206
” ‘When Kṛṣṇa was defeated by Śrīdāmā, He had to carry him on His shoulders. Similarly, Bhadrasena carried Vṛṣabha, and Pralamba carried Balarāma, the son of Rohiṇī.’
Cc. Madhya 19.207-209
” ' “My dearmost Kṛṣṇa, You are worshiping Me and giving up the company of all the other gopīs who wanted to enjoy themselves with You.” Thinking like this, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī considered Herself Kṛṣṇa’s most beloved gopī. She had become proud and had left the rāsa-līlā with Kṛṣṇa. In the deep forest She said, “My dear Kṛṣṇa, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like.” When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī petitioned Kṛṣṇa in this way, Kṛṣṇa said, “Just get up upon My shoulders.” As soon as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī began to do so, He disappeared. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī then began to grieve over Her request and Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance.’
Cc. Madhya 19.210
” ‘Dear Kṛṣṇa, neglecting the order of our husbands and sons, family, brothers and friends and leaving their company, we gopīs have come to You. You know everything about our desires. We have only come because we are attracted by Your supremely musical flute. However, You are a great cheater. Who else would give up the company of young girls like us in the dead of night?’
Cc. Madhya 19.211
“When one is fully attached to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, one attains the śamatā stage. The word śamatā is derived from the word śama; therefore śānta-rasa, the position of neutrality, means being fully attached to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. This is the verdict from the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. This state is called self-realization.
Cc. Madhya 19.212
“These are the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: ‘When one’s intelligence is fully attached to My lotus feet but one does not render practical service, one has attained the stage called śānta-rati, or śama. Without śānta-rati, attachment to Kṛṣṇa is very difficult to achieve.’
Cc. Madhya 19.213
” ‘The word śama or śānta-rasa indicates that one is attached to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. Dama means controlling the senses and not being deviated from the Lord’s service. Endurance of unhappiness is titikṣā, and dhṛti means controlling the tongue and the genitals.’
Cc. Madhya 19.214
“Giving up all desires not connected with Kṛṣṇa is the business of one who is in the śānta-rasa. Only a devotee of Kṛṣṇa can be situated on that platform. He is thus called a śānta-rasa-bhakta.
Cc. Madhya 19.215
“When a devotee is situated on the platform of śānta-rasa, he desires neither elevation to the heavenly planets nor liberation. These are the results of karma and jñāna, and the devotee considers them no better than hell. A person situated on the śānta-rasa platform manifests the two transcendental qualities of detachment from all material desire and full attachment to Kṛṣṇa.
Cc. Madhya 19.216
” ‘A person who is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, is not afraid of anything. Elevation to the heavenly kingdom, condemnation to hell and liberation from material bondage all appear the same to a devotee.’
Cc. Madhya 19.217
“These two qualities of the śānta stage spread through the lives of all devotees. They are like the quality of sound in the sky. Sound vibration is found in all material elements.
Cc. Madhya 19.218
“It is the nature of śānta-rasa that not even the smallest intimacy exists. Rather, knowledge of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramātmā is prominent.
Cc. Madhya 19.219
“On the platform of śānta-rasa, one only realizes his constitutional position. However, when one is raised to the platform of dāsya-rasa, he better understands the full opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Cc. Madhya 19.220
“On the dāsya-rasa platform, knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed with awe and veneration. By rendering service unto Lord Kṛṣṇa, the devotee in dāsya-rasa gives constant happiness to the Lord.
Cc. Madhya 19.221
“The qualities of śānta-rasa are also present in dāsya-rasa, but service is added. Thus the dāsya-rasa platform contains the qualities of both śānta-rasa and dāsya-rasa.
Cc. Madhya 19.222
“The qualities of śānta-rasa and the service of dāsya-rasa are both present on the platform of sakhya-rasa. On the platform of fraternity, the qualities of dāsya-rasa are mixed with the confidence of fraternity instead of awe and veneration.
Cc. Madhya 19.223
“On the sakhya-rasa platform, the devotee sometimes offers the Lord service and sometimes makes Kṛṣṇa serve him in exchange. In their mock fighting, the cowherd boys would sometimes climb on Kṛṣṇa’s shoulders, and sometimes they would make Kṛṣṇa climb on their shoulders.
Cc. Madhya 19.224
“Since the platform of fraternity is predominated by confidential service, awe and veneration are absent. Therefore sakhya-rasa is characterized by three qualities.
Cc. Madhya 19.225
“On the platform of sakhya-rasa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is obliged to the devotees who are intimate with Kṛṣṇa and think themselves equal to Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.226
“On the platform of parental love, the qualities of śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa and sakhya-rasa are transformed into a form of service called maintenance.
Cc. Madhya 19.227
“The essence of fraternal love is intimacy devoid of the formality and veneration found in the dāsya-rasa. Due to a greater sense of intimacy, the devotee functioning in paternal love chastises and rebukes the Lord in an ordinary way.
Cc. Madhya 19.228
“On the platform of paternal love, the devotee considers himself the Lord’s maintainer. Thus the Lord is the object of maintenance, like a son, and therefore this mellow is full of the four qualities of śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, fraternity and parental love. This is more transcendental nectar.
Cc. Madhya 19.229
“The exchange of spiritual happiness between Kṛṣṇa and His devotee, in which Kṛṣṇa is controlled by His devotee, is compared to an ocean of nectar into which the devotee and Kṛṣṇa plunge. This is the verdict of learned scholars who appreciate Kṛṣṇa’s opulence.
Cc. Madhya 19.230
” ‘Again let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O my Lord, I offer my obeisances hundreds and thousands of times with all affection because by Your personal pastimes You plunge the gopīs into an ocean of nectar. Appreciating Your opulence, devotees generally declare that You are always subjugated by their feelings.’
Cc. Madhya 19.231
“On the platform of conjugal love, attachment for Kṛṣṇa, rendering service unto Him, the relaxed feelings of fraternity and the feelings of maintenance all increase in intimacy.
Cc. Madhya 19.232
“On the platform of conjugal love, the devotee offers his body in the service of the Lord. Thus on this platform all five transcendental qualities are present.
Cc. Madhya 19.233
“All the material qualities evolve one after another in the material elements, beginning from ether. By gradual evolution, first one quality develops, then two qualities develop, then three and four, until all five qualities are found in earth.
Cc. Madhya 19.234
“Similarly, on the platform of conjugal love, all the feelings of the devotees are amalgamated. The intensified taste is certainly wonderful.”
Cc. Madhya 19.235
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then concluded: “I have simply given a general survey describing the mellows of devotional service. You can consider how to adjust and expand this.
Cc. Madhya 19.236
“When one thinks of Kṛṣṇa constantly, love for Him is manifest within the heart. Even though one may be ignorant, one can reach the shore of the ocean of transcendental love by Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy.”
Cc. Madhya 19.237
After saying this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. The Lord then decided to go to the city of Benares.
Cc. Madhya 19.238
The next morning, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arose and prepared to leave for Vārāṇasī [Benares], Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī made the following statement at the Lord’s lotus feet.
Cc. Madhya 19.239
“If You give me permission, I shall go with Your Lordship. It is not possible for me to tolerate the waves of separation.”
Cc. Madhya 19.240
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “Your duty is to carry out My order. You have come near Vṛndāvana. Now you should go there.
Cc. Madhya 19.241
“Later, you can go from Vṛndāvana to Jagannātha Purī through Bengal [Gauḍa-deśa]. There you will meet Me again.”
Cc. Madhya 19.242
After embracing Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu got into a boat. Rūpa Gosvāmī fainted and fell down on the spot.
Cc. Madhya 19.243
The brāhmaṇa from Deccan took Rūpa Gosvāmī to his home, and thereafter the two brothers departed for Vṛndāvana.
Cc. Madhya 19.244
After walking and walking, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu finally arrived at Vārāṇasī, where He met Candraśekhara, who was coming out of the city.
Cc. Madhya 19.245
In a dream Candraśekhara had seen that Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come to his home; therefore in the morning Candraśekhara went outside the city to receive the Lord.
Cc. Madhya 19.246
While Candraśekhara was waiting outside the city, he suddenly saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrive, and he fell down at the Lord’s feet. Being very happy, he took the Lord to his home.
Cc. Madhya 19.247
Tapana Miśra also heard news of the Lord’s arrival in Vārāṇasī, and he went to Candraśekhara’s house to meet Him. After talking, he invited the Lord to take lunch at his place.
Cc. Madhya 19.248
Tapana Miśra took Caitanya Mahāprabhu to his own house and gave Him lunch. Candraśekhara invited Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya to take lunch at his home.
Cc. Madhya 19.249
After offering lunch to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Tapana Miśra begged a favor from the Lord and requested Him to reward him mercy.
Cc. Madhya 19.250
Tapana Miśra said, “As long as Your Lordship stays in Vārāṇasī, please do not accept an invitation from anyone but me.”
Cc. Madhya 19.251
It was known to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu that He would remain there only five or seven days. He would not accept any invitation that involved Māyāvādī sannyāsīs.
Cc. Madhya 19.252
With this understanding, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu agreed to accept lunch at the place of Tapana Miśra. The Lord made His residence at the home of Candraśekhara.
Cc. Madhya 19.253
The Mahārāṣṭrīya brāhmaṇa came, and the Lord met him. Out of affection, the Lord bestowed His mercy upon him.
Cc. Madhya 19.254
Hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come, all the respectable members of the brāhmaṇa and kṣatriya communities came to see Him.
Cc. Madhya 19.255
Much mercy was thus bestowed upon Śrī Ra Gosvāmī, and I have briefly described all those topics.
Cc. Madhya 19.256
Whoever hears this narration with faith and love certainly develops love of God at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Cc. Madhya 19.257
Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.
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