Bg. 13.5

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥५॥


ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṁ
chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva
hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ


ṛṣibhiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigṛṣibhiḥ

by great sages or saintly persons; by great saintly persons; by the authorities; by the great saintly persons; by the sages; by the wise sages; the great saintly persons; the sages; with all the saintly persons; with the sages.
—by the wise sages; bahudhāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbahudhā

by innumerable; diversity; in diverse paraphernalia; in many ways; to many pieces; various kinds.
—in many ways; gītāmplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biggitam

explanation; instructed; narrated; prayers offered; sung; what has been spoken.
—described; chandobhiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigchandobhiḥ

Vedic hymns.
—Vedic hymns; vividhaiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvividhaiḥ

different kinds of; in various; with varieties; with varieties of.
—in various; pṛthakplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigpṛthak

anything else; different; differently; existing; individually; of separateness; one by one; separate; separated; separately; separately, predominantly; something else; variously.
—variously; brahmaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbrahma

//brahma//; //brāhmaṇas//; //mantras// beginning with //oṁ// (such as //oṁ tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ//); //Veda//; //Vedas//; absolute; Absolute Truth; all my brahminical qualifications; all the //Vedas//; all the //Vedas// with their different branches of knowledge; all the Vedas; all transcendental literatures; and //brahma//; Being; brahma; Brahmaloka; Brahman; brahminical civilization; brahminical culture; by Lord Brahmā; called by the name Brahman; from the activities of Brahman realization or austerity; Gāyatrī hymns; impersonal Brahman; impersonal Brahman realization; is the //brāhmaṇas//; knowledge of Brahman; Kṛṣṇa; Lord Brahmā; of a //brāhmaṇa//; of impersonal Brahman; of impersonal Brahman, or the Absolute Truth; of Lord Brahmā; of the //brāhmaṇas//; of the impersonal effulgence; spirit; spiritual; spiritual kingdom; spiritual knowledge; spiritual nature; spiritual power; Supreme; the //brāhmaṇas//; the //Vedas//; the Absolute; the Absolute Truth; the all-pervading Absolute Truth; the brahminical culture; the greatest; the Gāyatrī //mantra//; the impersonal Brahman (which is an emanation from Kṛṣṇa); the impersonal Brahman; the impersonal Brahman effulgence; the impersonal feature; the Parabrahman, Kṛṣṇa; the personified //Vedas//; the Supreme; the Supreme Absolute Truth; the Supreme Brahman; the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead; the Supreme Lord; the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the supreme spirit; the supreme truth, the Absolute Truth, Brahman; the Vedic knowledge; the Vedic literatures; the Vedic wisdom; Transcendence; transcendental; truth; unlimited; Vedic; Vedic knowledge; Vedic sound; without change; You are known as Brahman.
-sūtraplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsūtra

aphorisms; codes; in summary; notes; of a synopsis; sacred thread; synopsis; the //Vedānta-sūtra//; the codes.
—the Vedānta; padaiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigpadaih

aphorism; by the feet; by the soles of the feet; by the touch of the lotus feet; the marks on the sole of the foot; with words.
—aphorism; caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

//ca//; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word //ca//; this word //ca//; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—also; evaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigeva

alone; also; also the word //eva//; although; as; as it is; as it were; as much as; as they are; at all; at that time; certainly; certainly,; certainty; completely; definitely; even; ever; exactly; exactly like; factually; Himself; immediately; in fact; in this way; indeed; it is all like that; just; just so; like; like that; like this; of course; on the very; only; quite; simply; so; surely; the word //eva//; they are; thus; truly; undoubtedly; very; without doubt.
—certainly; hetumadbhiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bighetumadbhiḥ

with cause and effect.
—with cause and effect; viniścitaiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigviniścitaiḥ



That knowledge of the field of activities and of the knower of activities is described by various sages in various Vedic writings—especially in the Vedānta-sūtra—and is presented with all reasoning as to cause and effect. 


The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is the highest authority in explaining this knowledge. Still, as a matter of course, learned scholars and standard authorities always give evidence from previous authorities. Kṛṣṇa is explaining this most controversial point regarding the duality and non-duality of the soul and the Supersoul by referring to Scriptures, the Vedānta, which are accepted as authority. First, He says, this is according to different sages. As far as the sages are concerned, besides Himself, Vyāsadeva, the author of the Vedānta-sūtra, is a great sage, and in the Vedānta-sūtra duality is perfectly explained. And Vyāsadeva’s father, Parāśara, was also a great sage, and he writes in his books of religiosity: “aham tvaṁ ca athānye…” “We—you, I and various other living entities—are all transcendental, although in material bodies. Now we are fallen into the ways of the three modes of material nature according to our different karma. As such, some are on higher levels, and some are in the lower nature. The higher and lower natures exist due to ignorance and are being manifested in an infinite number of living entities. But the Supersoul, which is infallible, is uncontaminated by the three qualities of nature and is transcendental.” Similarly, in the original Vedas, a distinction between the soul, the Supersoul and the body is made, especially in the Kaṭha Upaniṣad. 

There is a manifestation of the Supreme Lord’s energy known as annamaya by which one depends simply upon food for existence. This is a materialistic realization of the Supreme. Then there is prāṇamaya; this means that after realizing the Supreme Absolute Truth in foodstuff, one can realize the Absolute Truth in the living symptoms, or life forms. In jñānamaya the living symptom develops to the point of thinking, feeling, and willing. Then there is Brahman realization and the realization called vijñānamaya by which the living entity’s mind and life symptoms are distinguished from the living entity himself. The next and supreme stage is ānandamaya, realization of the all-blissful nature. Thus there are five stages of Brahman realization, which is called brahma puccham. Out of these the first three—annamaya, prāṇamaya, and jñānamaya-involve the fields of activities of the living entities. Transcendental to all these fields of activities is the Supreme Lord, who is called ānandamaya. In the Vedānta-sūtra also the Supreme is called ānandamayo ‘bhyāsāt. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is by nature full of joy, and to enjoy His transcendental bliss, He expands into vijñānamaya, prāṇamaya, jñānamaya, and annamaya. In this field of activities the living entity is considered to be the enjoyer, and different from him is the ānandamaya. That means that if the living entity decides to enjoy, in dovetailing himself with the ānandamaya, then he becomes perfect. This is the real picture of the Supreme Lord, as supreme knower of the field, the living entity, as subordinate knower, and the nature of the field of activities.